Category Radio

Efficient Fpga Multiplier Used In Wireless Base Station (figure)

Based on WiMax and its derivatives in emerging broadband wireless standard protocol requires higher and higher throughput and data rate. These agreements made fast chip rate and digital radio processing program can use the FPGA hardware to achieve the best.

FPGA is very suitable Cooperation High-performance, cost-effective solutions to achieve these numbers in the physical layer protocol functions, as they include a wealth of resources:

1.DSP module can be used to achieve a variety of FIR filtering and FFT / IFFT operation of adders and multipliers required / accumulator functions;

2.SERDES transceiver, can support the wireless front-end and baseband digital board between the CPRI and OBSAI interface;

3. FPGA embedded RAM block important memory (EBR), can be used to store filter coefficients, perform block interleaving and FEC decoding to achieve (Turbo, Viterbi, Reed-Solomon, etc.);

4. Speed LVDSI / O, respectively, from the ADC and DAC support to a wide parallel interface. These converters are defined RF / analog functions and low-cost digital baseband logic between the boundaries. Interface, the higher the rate, low-cost FPGA solution that can integrate more statistics on the frequency / digital down conversion function.

This article focuses on the first resource that DSP multiplication module. Multiplication by reducing and optimizing DSP FFT and FIR in the module implementation, designers can minimize the use of resources to meet the throughput requirements under, allowing users to use the most cost-effective ready-made FPGA devices. The following four types of multipliers saving techniques in this introduction.

Functions for efficient complex multiplication WiMaxOFDM

WiMax system design, an important feature is to support orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). FPGA makes use of IFFT and FFT, respectively in the discrete time realization of OFDM transmitter and receiver become particularly vulnerable. Such as 802.16a and other agreements require 256 samples of the FFT. The 802.16e The agreement calls for a variety of FFT samples, or the flexibility to adjust the FFT samples to meet the dynamic channel and bandwidth requirements (Extensible OFDMA).

Complex multiplication In the implementation of the FFT 256 and 1024 samples, the Radix-4 structure can be the most efficient use of multipliers. FFT Algorithm 4 samples by multiplex Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) butterfly structure decomposition. For example, a 16-point FFT can be extracted by time, by taking or other related frequency decomposition method with two Radix-4DFT structure to achieve. Level 1 4 4 samples from the DFT composition, level 2 4 4 o’clock from the same DFT component. Since the output of each DFT requirements before the next level in the feed for the results presented provide three phases factors, so the first 1 and level 2 the phase factor between the needs of 9 9 complex multiplication.

First glance, the implementation of a complex multiplication requires four multipliers and two adder / subtractor. However, the expression can be re-written in another only three multipliers, three adders and two subtraction expression. It is noteworthy that the adder is the core logic in the FPGA implementation, using a rich bit by bit into bit mode (ripplemode) generic programmable logic unit (PLC) chip.

If D = Dr + jDi is the plural of data, C = Cr + jCi are complex coefficients, then the standard complex multiplication expression as follows:

E1: R = D * C = (Dr + jDi) * (Cr + jCi) = Rr + jRi (1)

Where Rr = Dr * Cr-Di * Ci, Ri = Dr * Ci + Di * Cr

These standards require the use of four multiplier expression. The expression can be re-order algebraic methods to:

E2: Rr = Dr * Cr-Di * Ci (2)

E3: Rr = Dr * Cr-Di * Ci +0 (3)

E4: Rr = Dr * Cr-Di * Ci + (Dr * Ci-Di * Cr) – (Dr * Ci-Di * Cr) (4)

E5: Rr = (Dr * Cr-Dr * Ci + Di * Cr-Di * Ci) + (Dr * Ci-Di * Cr) (5)

Complex expression is the result of the new:

E6: Rr = [(Dr + Di) * (Cr-Ci)] + (Dr * Ci-Di * Cr) (3 times multiplication) (6)

E7: Ri = Dr * Ci + Di * Cr (reuse the product from the Rr) (7)

Shown in Figure 1, the optimal complex multiplication can be three multipliers, three adders and two subtractor realized. It is noteworthy that, in the FPGA, the addition / subtraction module relative die area used is less than 18 Ã? 18 multiplier module.

Figure 1: The 4 and 3 multipliers of complex multiplication.

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Wolsey-Wessington vs Parker

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2017 B Boys Basketball

2014 New York Comic Con Pictures by Mary Nichols (aka DJ Fusion of the FuseBox Radio Broadcast)
Image by fuseboxradio
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WPHT Salutes the Troops

Image by PANationalGuard
TREVOSE, Pa. — Philadelphia talk radio station 1210 AM WPHT, known as ‘The Big Talker,’ organized an event on Feb. 20, 2012, to salute veterans, specifically those who have served since Sept. 11, 2001. Some 20 Pennsylvania National Guard members from four units were on hand to represent the 19,000 soldiers and airmen in the state Guard who have deployed more than 25,000 times since 9/11. Hundreds of local citizens, veterans, and representatives from military service organizations were on hand to join in the salute and live radio broadcast. (Pennsylvania National Guard photo by Sgt. Matt Jones/released)


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Himachal Tour Package with Hill Stations in India and Goa Honeymoon Packages

Trip to hill stations in North India can be a perfect reviving trip to rejuvenate your mind. You can admire the panorama of majestic mountains covered with snow capped peaks, meandering rivers, rivulets and pine trees. North India is a home to many hill stations. You can find the nature unfolding its beauty to the extreme in these hill stations. The great Himalayas in North India have some horrific unconquered peaks of tremendous heights, valleys, a wide range of forests, gushing streams, waterfalls surrounded in fog and mist and fabulous hill resorts. So, hill stations in North India offers you an opportunity to refresh you from within and out. Himachal Tour Package with Hill Stations in India and Goa Honeymoon Packages

North India hill stations are gateways to some veiled bewitching beauty of nature. It offers favorite tourists spot to the travelers. Most of the hill stations in North India are located at a height ranging from 600 m to 3500 meters above the sea level. From these hill stations in North India, you can witness the snow capped mountain peaks and many other fascinating sights of attraction. Shimla, located in North India is popularly known as the “Queen of the Hill Staions” is really an ultimate place with invigorate air. Likely the hill station, Manali that lies in the lap of the verdant Kullu Valley (Himachal Pradesh) is an enticing hill station in North India that never failed to enliven the soul of the tourist of the entire globe. Nainital, Kasauli, Mussoorie, Mount Abu, Srinagar, Ladakh, Gulmarg etc are some other beautiful hill stations in North India to name only a few. Delhi Shimla Tour Package with Delhi Sightseeing Tours and Weekend Getaways from Bangalore

There are many other fascinating hill stations in North India that have attracted the tourists of the entire globe. You can ensure your stay in various hill resorts near these hill stations. These hill resorts have widely spread throughout the entire length and breadth of North India. Also you can ensure all the modern facilities in these hill resorts in North India. To explore the various treasures in hill stations, you can avail the Shimla Holiday Package, Nainital Hill Station Package and many other packages. You can unwind a lot of eye-popping natural treasures in these hill stations in North India by availing different hill tour packages.

To make your tour to hill stations in North India more luxurious and hassle free, you can take the assistance of any reliable travel agent. There are lot of travel agents that provide different tour packages, hotel bookings and many other facilities.  Some travel agents also provide well trained guides who can assist you during your exploration in North India. So, never fail to witness hill stations in North India during your India tour.

Tourists coming to India, explore the magnificent unfolding beauty of nature at every step of Noth India in its amazingly charming hill stations Shimla, Manali, Kausani, Mussoorie & many more. Hill stations in North India, Shimla holiday package, India hill stations, Manali holidays, Nainital holidays

Hill Stations in India | Himachal Tour Package | Goa Honeymoon Packages



Check out these radio station images:


Image by Nicholas Blake
High Halstow to Cooling Radio Station, 29 September 2013

Image from page 334 of “Radio for everybody; being a popular guide to practical radio-phone reception and transmission and to the dot-and-dash reception and transmission of the radio telegraph, for the layman who wants to apply radio for his pleasure and

Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: radioforeverybod00lesc
Title: Radio for everybody; being a popular guide to practical radio-phone reception and transmission and to the dot-and-dash reception and transmission of the radio telegraph, for the layman who wants to apply radio for his pleasure and profit without going into the special theories and the intricacies of the art
Year: 1922 (1920s)
Authors: Lescarboura, Austin C. (Austin Celestin), 1891-
Subjects: Radio
Publisher: New York, Scientific American publishing company [etc.]
Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
geis impressed on the plate circuits of the two oscillatortubes by means of a reactance, which is common to themodulator and oscillator plate circuits. This modulationof the oscillator plate potential results in speech frequencyvariation of the amplitude of the antenna current. Thefrequency of the antenna current when not modulated isnearly that corresponding to the free period of the antennacircuit. A Record to be Proud Of Since the radio link is the only telephone channel be-tween the island and the mainland, it was very heavilyoverloaded from the day of opening until the cessation ofthe summer tourist traffic in the latter part of September,1920. Due to the methods employed, the high grade cir-cuit, and so on, a great deal more traffic is handled overthis circuit than is generally handled by a single toll line. A record of all of the interruptions to service is keptat both of the stations together with the cause of the delay,its duration, and other information. It is interesting to

Text Appearing After Image:
Vacuum type employed in radio transmission, especially forthe sending: end of the radio linli. 316 RADIO FOR EVERYBODY note that althouo^h the circuit was open to commercialservice during the worst of the static season, subscribershad but Httle or no difficulty in using the circuit. Trans-mitting frequencies! of 400 and 470 meters were chosen forthe stations after an extensive survey of the ether, so thatthe telephone would cause the least interfernce to and beinterfered w^th the least by radio stations in the vicinity.Some trouble was experienced from the Avalon sparkstation located about one mile from the receiving station.Avalon transmits on 300 meters, while the Pebbly Beachstation had its receiving apparatus tuned to 470 meters.Upon investigation it proved that the wave emitted by thespark transmitter was a broad one, and that when thewave is kept sharp and within certain definite limits ofpurity, so to speak, little or no trouble is experienced fromthis station. The circuit, due

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.


Image by Donovan Henneberg-Verity
I would not want to run into whatever made this in a dark alley at night…

WUOG, the UGA radio station, did some volunteer work at the Athens-Clarke County Animal Control Center.

Check the animal shelter out here, and WUOG here


Everything was shot with a 50mm prime lens and f/1.8

Iso varied from 100 to 200 and shutter speeds from 1/3000 to 1/4000.

I welcome and encourage all comments, suggestions, and criticism.

Please, tell me what you think!


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Living Life To The Fullest

by izqrdo

As we head towards summer time here in Australia, we have so many more opportunities to really get out and enjoy life. The daylight hours are plenty the weather is lovely and really there is no excuse not to enjoy yourself.


You see it’s not just the things we do that makes us happy, life fulfilment comes from a place within, a place that has all of our values, beliefs, habits and emotions stirring around inside us. A person can be really out their enjoying daily activities and still be quite unhappy and unfulfilled.

Life fulfilment starts from within and spreads outwards, it starts with understanding who you are and what you stand for. It also starts with knowing what you want. Most people in life just sail through day in and day out not really knowing what they want or how to get it. Before they know it they’re mid 40’s with not much to show for it. Anyone can live a life full of fulfilment and happiness if they choose to do so.

So where does this all start. Well it begins with knowing yourself.

First you must know what you want to stand for, your values. What is it that is important to you. Love, happiness, freedom, security, flexibility, health
Make a list of all the things you know are important to you. When you have a list of values ask yourself “Do I live by these values each day” “Do I do things that make me feel happy” it will become very clear whether you do or don’t.

Secondly you must be aware of your beliefs and change them to support your values. For example if you have a belief that ‘nothing good happens to anyone in the world’ but you have a value of love and friendship, then there is no chance that you could actually be happy and living by that value. Your belief just want allow it.

Thirdly your habits must be consistent to allow you to live by your values and beliefs. These are the things that you do. A habit can take all of 21 days to form and become a part of you, so it’s not a long time in the big picture. For example you couldn’t have a value of health and wellness, but your habit each Friday was to get junk food. Everytime you had that junk food you would feel disappointed with yourself.

Once you align all 3 areas up you’ll be amazed how much happier and how much more you get out of life.

Life fulfilment starts from within, you will always be far happier, more productive and more content when you understand yourself and what you want out of life.

Michael Griffiths is the founder of Secrets Of A Super Life. He works with hundreds of individuals to gain more out of their life and get the results they are looking for. To get your free life success resources visit



Some cool radio station images:


Image by Jack Parrott
Abenaki Indians called it Catawamteak, meaning "great landing place." In 1767, John Lermond and his two brothers from Warren built a camp to produce oak staves and pine lumber. Thereafter known as Lermond’s Cove, it was first settled about 1769. When in 1777 Thomaston was incorporated, Lermond’s Cove became a district called Shore village. On July 28, 1848, it was set off as the town of East Thomaston. Renamed Rockland in 1850, it was chartered as a city in 1854.[2]
Vessel launching c. 1900
Rockland-Rockport Lime Co. c. 1912

Rockland developed rapidly because of shipbuilding and lime production. In 1854 alone, the city built eleven ships, three barks, six brigs and four schooners. The city had twelve lime quarries and 125 lime kilns, with upwards of 300 vessels to transport the mineral to various ports in the country. [3]

By 1886, shipbuilding was surpassed by the lime business, which had twelve manufacturers employing 1,000 workers. Nevertheless, Rockland had three or more shipyards, a marine railway, five sail lofts and two boatbuilders. Other industries included three grain mills, two foundries, three carriage factories, six lumber mills, two machine shops, three cooperies, one tannery, four granite and marble works, two boot and shoe factories, and four printing offices. Fishing was also important. Fleets of Friendship Sloops sailed between the harbor and fishing grounds across Penobscot Bay.[4]

The opening of the Knox and Lincoln Railroad in 1871 brought an influx of tourists. Inns and hotels were established to accommodate them, with the grandest being The Bay Point Hotel in 1889. With a commanding view near the breakwater, the resort offered every luxury and amusement. Renamed The Samoset Hotel in 1902, it was successful until the Great Depression, which began a slow decline. In the age of automobiles, travelers were no longer restricted to the limits of train service, but were free to explore elsewhere. Closed in 1969, the Victorian hotel burned in 1972. A new Samoset Resort opened in 1974.[5]

In 1915, the new superdreadnought USS Nevada (BB-36) conducted tests and completed her running trials just off the shore from Rockland.[6][7]

Today, Rockland is an officially designated micropolitan area. Since the early 1990s, Rockland has seen a shift in its economy away from the fishery and toward a service center city. It has also seen a substantial increase in tourism and the downtown has transformed into one of unique shops, boutiques, fine dining and art galleries. Rockland is the commercial center of the midcoast Maine region, with many historic inns, a coffee roaster, a food co-op, a community radio station WRFR, and the Farnsworth Art Museum. Rockland was named a Coast Guard City in March 2008, in recognition of the long-standing and special relationship that the city and its residents have with the United States Coast Guard.[8][9][10]

Fort Andross

Image by Me in ME
A reflection of this former mill in the rear window of our Toyota Highlander. In addition to the farmers’ market and flea market it houses several businesses, two restaurants, a radio station, an antique store and more.

Fort Andross was a trading post on this site established in 1688. In 1809 the first cotton mill was built here and used the river for power. This eventually became Cabot Mill (the top sign) and at its peak in the 1930s employed 1100 workers.