Global tagged posts

The Global Animal Mass Death Enigma – Time line – What did the Ancients know? Dead Birds and Fish Video Created By John Carnagey The ’cause’ of the following events are not the focus of discussion in this video… This video addresses ‘what’ happened, not ‘how’ it happened. The ‘effect’… The cause is irrelevant to the reality of the fact that the following events have occurred. This video is a time line occurring. This video is a time line of the unusual events that have taken place world wide. These events merit the attention of all viewers. These strange and unusual times have been spoken of by many ancient masters, from many different lands, through out time. 01/01/11 The First Incident… Arkansas Beebe Moments before New Years, 2011… 3000 Black birds fall from the sky in Beebe Arkansas. Residents called 911… “They are like bleeding out of the mouth and some of them are not dead.” 01/01/11 Later New Years day in the early morning, it is discovered that over 100000 dead fish have washed up upon the shores of a local river in the same Arkansas area. Louisiana Baton Rouge 01/03/11 Now 300 miles away, and now in an entirely separate state from the first two incidences… Over 450 birds are found dead on a Louisiana highway near Baton Rouge. Florida Port Orange 01/04/11 Thousands of dead fish washed up on the shores of Spruce Creek, Florida. Kentucky 01/05/11 Kentucky wildlife officials report several hundred grackles, red wing blackbirds, robins and starlings found dead last week in the western part of the state. Sweden Falkoping 01/05/11 Now
Video Rating: 4 / 5


Global BC Broadcasts Live from VFS

A few nice broadcast images I found:

Global BC Broadcasts Live from VFS
Image by vancouverfilmschool
Global BC visited Vancouver Film School to give viewers an inside look at the VFS experience. The special "back to school" broadcast featured demonstrations and interviews with faculty, students, and alumni from a wide range of VFS programs including Sound Design, Digital Character Animation, Acting, and Makeup Design.

Picture-in-picture? Not me, I just have 16 screens.
Image by Irregular Shed
The automated broadcast suite in HTV. This room is responsible for re-broadcasting stuff from ITV to Wales. If there were a need to break into a transmission for a Wales-specific broadcast – like if there was a revolution or something – it would get done from this room.

Hu Jintao on TV _0071
Image by \!/_PeacePlusOne
Television Broadcast on CCTV 9 of the 60th Anniversary of the founding of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) – lots of military hardware on display for the first time.

Share the 3 Finger "Peace Plus One" Sustainability Symbol with your friends – it means PEACE, HARMONY and BALANCE between SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMY_\!/

World Sustainability Project:

Photo courtesy: McMaster Institute for Sustainable Development in Commerce.


Podcasters playing local, going global

Podcasters playing local, going global
They don’t have a high-tech studio or backing from Clear Channel. But Quincy “Q. Dot” Henry and Maurice Thornton still reach the masses armed with only a couple of laptops, an Internet connection and a pair of microphones at Henry’s Federal Way apartment.
Read more on Tacoma News Tribune

Heath Evans full of options
It’s hard to know if Heath Evans is the typical NFL player preparing for a lockout, or if he’s the rare exception. The…
Read more on Boston Herald

Weekly CEO Buys Highlight: NWS, CDNS, NL, GNW, FBN
By guruyt. Last week’s top five CEO Buy companies were News Corp, Cadence Design Systems, NL Industries, Genworth Financial, and Furniture Brands. According to GuruFocus Insider Data, these are the largest CEO buys during the past week. Read more » »
Read more on Guru Focus


Gold, silver rise on global inflation concerns

Gold, silver rise on global inflation concerns
Gold and silver prices rose Tuesday after China increased interest rates to curb inflation and slow economic growth.
Read more on Omaha World-Herald

UT men set to take on second half of Big 12 slate
UT men set to take on second half of Big 12 slate
Read more on Austin American-Statesman


Chinese Ancient Traditions Revived in Global New Year Shows

Chinese Ancient Traditions Revived in Global New Year Shows

Two years ago some Chinese friends of mine took me to NTDTV’s (New Tang Dynasty TV) live Chinese New Year Spectacular. It was a thrilling and enchanting music and dance performance, with traditional Chinese instruments and costumes faithfully recreated from old manuscripts, paintings and pottery. The dragons, drums and dancers all evoked the grandeur of China’s great dynasties and legends of remote history.

Ancient Chinese traditions speak of harmony between heaven and earth. They say that humans were created by Gods. Culture as well as moral and spiritual guidance were also imparted to humans by divine beings during different times in history. When humans respect the Tao, the “Divine Law or Way” and follow Heaven’s order, society will be prosperous and peaceful.

Like most Westerners I knew next to nothing about the Chinese New Year. So I asked my friends to tell me more and share their favorite New Year’s memories. I learned that Chinese New Year is actually celebrated by almost a quarter of the world’s population in several Asian countries where it is the most important holiday of the year. It follows the Lunar calendar, and the date varies each year, depending on the moon’s cycle.

Several friends shared about fire works and favorite foods–dumplings were often mentioned–and various traditions. One is to write poems or lucky phrases on red paper to be pasted around every family’s door. After breakfast there would be a round of visits. The first stop would be at a local temple to burn incense and honor the gods. Next came visits to relatives and friends. In many towns musicians paraded through streets to announce the arrival of spring.

The Lantern Festival marks the end of the New Year season. It evolved from the ancient belief of celestial spirits flying about in the light of the first full moon. Lanterns of many colors and shapes were lit during the night.

Maquiong, who grew up in a town near the Yangzi River, said, “Some communities would organize a lantern market. Usually, my mom would take us to watch the activities. Later she’d cook another good dinner which included dumplings filled with syrup, which symbolizes harmony in the family and sweetness of life.”

She said that in recent years traditions like these have been changing in China. In big cities fireworks were forbidden, and people have New Year’s dinner at restaurants. Also, many people exchange new year greetings by phone and don’t visit each other so much anymore. “But in my memories,” Maquiong said, “Chinese New Year always means having a good time.”

“Traditional Chinese culture and spiritual traditions were destroyed and outlawed by the Chinese Communist Party,” said Jason, a medical doctor. He said that the CCP smashed almost all the temples and burned the ancient manuscripts. Since coming to power in the late 40s, they have changed history books and brainwashed generations of Chinese with party culture, class struggle and Marxist ideology.

“Young people know nothing about true Chinese history or the deeper values of our ancient traditions,” Jason said. “NTDTV and its annual global Chinese New Year Shows are instrumental in promoting a rebirth of traditional Chinese culture. The performances are magnificent and full of nobility.”

The 2007 NTDTV New Year Spectacular will be touring Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Washington, DC, plus major cities in Canada, Europe and Asia.

Gisela Sommer has a degree in humanistic studies and psychology. She is an independent writer covering cultural events and human rights issues and has an interest in preserving cultural and spiritual traditon.

Article from


What are the global “foreign” perceptions of African Americans?

Question by Andre L: What are the global “foreign” perceptions of African Americans?
I am writing a paper on the cultural and psychological influences of media on our perceptions of race and gender. I know that African Americans have relatively poor representation on television and in the movies. (Not every movie but many that I have seen) They play “coonish” stereotypical comedic characters and etc.

African American “gangsta rap music” has further added to the problem by poorly representing the African American community sluts, rapist, urban psycho-killers, jail birds, misfits and deviants. The random acts of violence on the news continues dig an even bigger hole.

The ave African American I know; 30+ are as clueless about rap music as an opera singer in Italy. The reality of African American culture does not seem to quiet live up to or rather “down to” what I see on t.v.

1. Do African Americans have an “image problem” in your country. (Are they viewed negatively?)

2. If so, how are they viewed? What are those stereotypes?

Best answer:

Answer by romeo t

What do you think? Answer below!


Hormone Therapy Safety: Medical Journals Request Expert Opinions From Global Leader and UCLA Professor

Hormone Therapy Safety: Medical Journals Request Expert Opinions From Global Leader and UCLA Professor
A series of research conducted by age-management leader Cenegenics® Medical Institute with noted UCLA professor Dr. Ernst von Schwarz garnered the medical community’s recognition as experts on hormonal therapy
Read more on PRWeb via Yahoo! News

U.S. Home Systems to Present at the Sidoti & Company, LLC Semi-Annual New York Micro-Cap Conference
U.S. Home Systems, Inc. today announced that Robert DeFronzo, chief financial officer, will present at the Sidoti & Company, LLC Semi-Annual New York Micro-Cap Conference at 9:20 a.m. on Monday, January 10, 2011 in the Estate 7/Plymouth room at the Grand Hyatt New York Hotel, Park Avenue at Grand Central Station.
Read more on PR Newswire via Yahoo! Finance


Jana Bennett Joins BBC Worldwide as President, Worldwide Networks and Global iPlayer

store record bag oakland, E.F. Music

Image by bunky’s pickle

Jana Bennett Joins BBC Worldwide as President, Worldwide Networks and Global iPlayer
Mimi Turner To step down from overseeing BBC’s seven television networks, five national radio stations, film production and online businesses before the end of the year. read more
Read more on The Hollywood Reporter

Council declares Gbagbo winner of Ivory Coast vote
Ivory Coast’s political crisis deepened Friday as the constitutional council declared incumbent President Laurent Gbagbo the winner of the disputed election, reversing the outcome backed by independent observers and raising fears of violence.
Read more on AP via Yahoo! News

Billionaire puts wager on really local online news
Some people look at Manhattan and see the world’s most crowded media market. Not J. Joseph Ricketts. The founder of online brokerage TD Ameritrade and new owner of the Chicago Cubs perceives an opportunity as wide as the Hudson River for his year-old local news operation, “Starting a media company today feels a little like running into a burning building,” the Wyoming-based …
Read more on Crain’s New York Business


Global Cost of Living Rank of 300 International Locations World Wide September 2010

Global Cost of Living Rank of 300 International Locations World Wide September 2010

Tokyo is the costliest city in the world in which to live of 300 global locations, surveyed in September 2010 by While Tokyo is relatively cheap for items such as alcohol & tobacco (ranked 145), it is the most expensive for groceries and healthcare, and household accommodation costs. Tokyo has always been relatively expensive. This trend has strengthened again recently, as a result of the Japanese Yen having gained in value by about 18% against the United States Dollar in the past two years.

As the most expensive city in the world, Tokyo has an overall cost of living index of 155.4 (New York = 100), while Dubai (ranked 60 in the world) has a cost of living index of 88.84. Therefore Tokyo’s cost of living is 75% higher than Dubai. That means that an expatriate earning USD,000 per month in Dubai would need to earn USD,750 per month in Tokyo to enable them to have the same purchasing power, and therefore a similar standard of living as they had in Dubai. The cost of living for an expatriate is affected by both the availability and prices, of goods and services representative of an expatriate lifestyle, local inflation, and the exchange rate between the home and host country. As a result the cost of living has a significant impact of an expatriate’s salary package.

Caracas has moved up the rankings to become the second most expensive city to live in. Caracas is most expensive place in the world for furniture and appliances, recreation and culture as well as for hotels restaurants and meals out. Caracas is the second most expensive place for alcohol and tobacco, groceries, and healthcare.

Hong Kong is the third most expensive city in the world for expatriates to live in. The high overall cost of living rank for Hong Kong is primarily a result of two expensive basket groups. Hong Kong is the third most expensive city in the world for healthcare, and is the second most expensive city in the world for household accommodation, which typically comprises 30% of an expatriate’s expenses. Hong Kong is a good example of why many international organizations compensate separately for healthcare as well as household related costs such as housing rental, water, electricity, household gas, household fuels, local rates and residential taxes. Items that are provided by the employer should be excluded from a cost of living index calculation. The cost of living index for Hong Kong excluding healthcare and household related costs is substantially lower than it’s overall cost of living index of 128.9 (New York = 100).

Hong Kong is relatively cheap for recreation & culture (ranked 241 in the world), education (ranked 259 in the world), as well as furniture & appliances (ranked 268 in the world).

Osaka, ranked fourth, is a new addition to the rankings. Osaka is most expensive for household accommodation (ranked 3 in the world), healthcare (ranked 5 in the world) and groceries (ranked 6 in the world).

Sao Paulo, another new addition to the rankings, is the fifth most expensive city in the world. Sao Paulo is the most expensive place in the world for education, and is ranked second most expensive for clothing. The Brazilian Real has strengthened by 11% against the United States Dollar in the past year, although it is still weaker than it was two years ago. Sao Paulo is ranked in the top 55 most expensive cities in the world for each of the 13 basket groups.

Asia-Pacific has 4 of the 10 most expensive cities in the world. Tokyo is first and Hong Kong the third most expensive location in the world (and most expensive in greater China), whilst Osaka is the third most expensive city in Asia-Pacific (ranked 4 in the world), followed by Nagoya (ranked 6 in the world).

Cities in mainland China remain relatively cheap, mainly due to the pegging of the Chinese Yuan to the US Dollar which has kept costs down. Within mainland China, Shanghai (ranked 15 in the world), and Beijing (ranked 116 in the world) are the most expensive locations. The cheapest city surveyed in China is Tianjin (ranked 281 in the world) with a cost of living index of 60.34 (New York = 100). The cheapest city in Asia-Pacific is Nuku’Alofa in Tonga (ranked 299 in the world) with a cost of living index of 54.45 (New York = 100).

Most expensive cities in Asia-Pacific (Global rank in brackets)
1. Japan, Tokyo (1)
2. China, Hong Kong (3)
3. Japan, Osaka (4)
4. Japan, Nagoya (6)
5. Japan, Yokohama (11)
6. China, Shanghai (15)
7. Singapore (20)
8. Australia, Sydney (22)
9. Korea Republic of, Seoul (24)
10. Australia, Canberra (25)

South Asia is the least expensive region in the world for expatriates to live in. The most expensive city surveyed is Mumbai (ranked 94 in the world), followed by New Delhi (ranked 127 in the world), and Chennai (ranked 129 in the world). The Indian Rupee has weakened by 7% against the United States Dollar over the past two years. The cheapest city in South Asia is Thimphu in Bhutan (ranked 298 in the world).

Most expensive cities in South Asia (Global rank in brackets)
1. India, Mumbai (94)
2. India, New Delhi (127)
3. India, Chennai (129)
4. India, Calcutta (130)
5. Maldives, Male (135)
6. India, Hyderabad (142)
7. India, Bangalore (160)
8. Afghanistan, Kabul (194)
9. Bangladesh, Dhaka (263)
10. Pakistan, Lahore 276)

Europe’s most expensive cities are those that are not on the Euro. The most expensive city in Europe is Geneva (ranked 8 in the world), while Zurich is Europe’s third most expensive city (ranked 10 in the world), making Switzerland the most expensive country in Europe. The Swiss Franc has strengthened by 8% in the past year and by 16% over the past 2 years. Geneva is followed by Moscow (ranked 9 in the world), which had fallen in the cost of living rankings last year and shot back up to 6th most expensive city in Europe earlier this year. The Russian Rouble has strengthened 14% against the Euro in the past year.

Oslo is the fourth most expensive city in Europe (ranked 12 in the world), followed by Copenhagen (ranked 16 in the world). The cheapest city in Europe is Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina (ranked 292 in the world) with a cost of living index of 57.15 (New York = 100).

Most expensive cities in Europe (Global rank in brackets)
1. Switzerland, Geneva (8)
2. Russia, Moscow (9)
3. Switzerland, Zurich (10)
4. Norway, Oslo (12)
5. Denmark, Copenhagen (16)
6. Liechtenstein, Vaduz (17)
7. United Kingdom, London (23)
8. France, Paris (26)
9. Monaco, Monaco (29)
10. Jersey, Saint Helier (34)

The Middle East has experienced a drop in inflation in most cities over the past two years following a few years of relatively high inflation. The strong link of most regional currencies to the United States Dollar has resulted in many regional currencies strengthening against other major currencies. The United States Dollar has strengthened against the Euro by around 21% in the past two years making imports from Europe into the region cheaper.

Abu Dhabi (ranked 19 in the world) is the most expensive city in the Middle East, followed by Doha (ranked 28 in the world), and Bahrain (ranked 47 in the world). Dubai is the fourth most expensive city in the Middle East (ranked 60 in the world) with a cost of living index of 88.84 (New York = 100). Household accommodation, which comprises 30% of the 13 basket groups based on expatriate expenditure norms, has fallen dramatically in Dubai in the past year, as a result of over-supply, given the impact of the financial crises. The cheapest city surveyed in the Middle East (and cheapest in the world) is Sanaa in Yemen (ranked 300 in the world) with a cost of living index of 50.42, half that of New York which has a cost of living index of 100.

Most expensive cities in the Middle East (Global rank in brackets)
1. United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi (19)
2. Qatar, Doha (28)
3. Bahrain, Manama (47)
4. United Arab Emirates, Dubai (60)
5. Israel, Jerusalem (82)
6. Lebanon, Beirut (119)
7. Palestinian Territories, West Bank (141)
8. Syria, Damascus (146)
9. Iran, Tehran (158)
10. Kuwait, Kuwait City (163)

The Americas most expensive city is now Caracas, which is the world’s second most expensive city to live in, largely as a result of the recent devaluation of the official exchange rate.

Brazil has 3 of the 4 most expensive cities in the Americas. New additions to the rankings, Sao Paulo (ranked 5 in the world), and Rio de Janeiro (ranked 7 in the world) are followed by Brasilia (ranked 13 in the world.

Nassau (ranked 18 in the world) is the fifth most expensive city, while New York (ranked 21 in the world) is the sixth most expensive city in the America’s and most expensive in the United States of America. The cheapest city to live in the Americas is La Paz in Bolivia (ranked 294 in the world). The cheapest city surveyed in the United States of America is Indianapolis Ind (ranked 279 in the world).

Most expensive cities in the Americas (Global rank in brackets)
1. Venezuela, Caracas (2)
2. Brazil, Sao Paulo (5)
3. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (7)
4. Brazil, Brasilia (13)
5. Bahamas, Nassau (18)
6. USA, New York NY (21)
7. Canada, Toronto (31)
8. Trinidad and Tobago, Port-of-Spain (32)
9. Bermuda, Hamilton (36)
10. Canada, Vancouver (42)


The full September 2010 list of all 300 international locations using all 13 basket groups is as follows:

September 2010 Rank Country, City

1 Japan, Tokyo

2 Venezuela, Caracas

3 China, Hong Kong

4 Japan, Osaka

5 Brazil, Sao Paulo

6 Japan, Nagoya

7 Brazil, Rio de Janeiro

8 Switzerland, Geneva

9 Russia, Moscow

10 Switzerland, Zurich

11 Japan, Yokohama

12 Norway, Oslo

13 Brazil, Brasilia

14 Angola, Luanda

15 China, Shanghai

16 Denmark, Copenhagen

17 Liechtenstein, Vaduz

18 Bahamas, Nassau

19 United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi

20 Singapore, Singapore

21 USA, New York NY

22 Australia, Sydney

23 United Kingdom, London

24 Korea Republic of, Seoul

25 Australia, Canberra

26 France, Paris

27 Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby

28 Qatar, Doha

29 Monaco, Monaco

30 Vanuatu, Port Vila

31 Canada, Toronto

32 Trinidad and Tobago, Port-of-Spain

33 Nigeria, Lagos

34 Jersey, Saint Helier

35 Russia, St. Petersburg

36 Bermuda, Hamilton

37 Solomon Islands, Honiara

38 Taiwan, Taipei

39 Australia, Melbourne

40 Australia, Perth

41 Azerbaijan, Baku

42 Canada, Vancouver

43 Guernsey, St Peter Port

44 Austria, Vienna

45 Germany, Munich

46 Kiribati, South Tarawa

47 Bahrain, Manama

48 Isle of Man, Douglas

49 Italy, Milan

50 United Kingdom, Glasgow

51 Gabon, Libreville

52 Finland, Helsinki

53 Canada, Calgary

54 Falkland Islands, Stanley

55 Sudan, Khartoum

56 Germany, Frankfurt

57 Italy, Rome

58 Micronesia, Palikir

59 Congo Democratic Rep, Kinshasa

60 United Arab Emirates, Dubai

61 Cayman Islands, George Town

62 Chad, NDjamena

63 USA, San Francisco Calif

64 Saint Helena, Jamestown

65 Croatia, Zagreb

66 USA, Boston Mass

67 Germany, Cologne

68 Turkey, Istanbul

69 Canada, Montreal

70 United Kingdom, Birmingham

71 Belgium, Brussels

72 New Caledonia, Noumea

73 Mali, Bamako

74 Netherlands, Amsterdam

75 United Kingdom, Leeds

76 Slovakia, Bratislava

77 USA, Washington DC

78 Indonesia, Jakarta

79 San Marino, San Marino

80 Central African Republic, Bangui

81 Germany, Hamburg

82 Israel, Jerusalem

83 Australia, Brisbane

84 USA, San Jose Calif

85 Estonia, Tallinn

86 Ireland, Dublin

87 Luxembourg, Luxembourg

88 Kazakhstan, Almaty

89 Sierra Leone, Freetown

90 Iceland, Reykjavik

91 Sao Tome and Principe, Sao Tome

92 Germany, Berlin

93 Germany, Bonn

94 India, Mumbai

95 Jamaica, Kingston

96 Djibouti, Djibouti

97 United Kingdom, Belfast

98 Congo, Brazzaville

99 USA, Anchorage AK

100 USA, Philadelphia Pa

101 Uruguay, Montevideo

102 New Zealand, Auckland

103 Liberia, Monrovia

104 Canada, Ottawa

105 Spain, Madrid

106 France, Lyon

107 Colombia, Bogota

108 Barbados, Bridgetown

109 Sweden, Stockholm

110 Martinique, Fort-de-France

111 Czech Republic, Prague

112 Cameroon, Douala

113 Australia, Adelaide

114 Vatican City, Vatican City

115 Turkey, Ankara

116 China, Beijing

117 Puerto Rico, San Juan

118 Nauru, Yaren

119 Lebanon, Beirut

120 Zambia, Lusaka

121 USA, Los Angeles Calif

122 France, Marseille

123 Cameroon, Yaounde

124 Cook Islands, Avarua

125 Spain, Barcelona

126 Guam, Hagatna

127 India, New Delhi

128 Samoa, Apia

129 India, Chennai

130 India, Calcutta

131 Ghana, Accra

132 Marshall Islands, Majuro

133 Cote DIvoire, Abidjan

134 Greenland, Nuuk

135 Maldives, Male

136 Hungary, Budapest

137 Malawi, Lilongwe

138 Turkmenistan, Ashgabat

139 USA, San Diego Calif

140 Rwanda, Kigali

141 Palestinian Territories, West Bank

142 India, Hyderabad

143 USA, Chicago Ill

144 Chile, Santiago

145 USA, Portland Ore

146 Syria, Damascus

147 Malta, Velletta

148 Peru, Lima

149 Tuvalu, Funafuti

150 Namibia, Windhoek

151 USA, Baltimore Md

152 Ukraine, Kiev

153 South Africa, Johannesburg

154 Portugal, Lisbon

155 USA, Seattle Wash

156 Tanzania, Dar es Salaam

157 Guadeloupe, Basse-Terre

158 Iran, Tehran

159 Togo, Lome

160 India, Bangalore

161 USA, Miami Fla

162 Guinea, Conakry

163 Kuwait, Kuwait City

164 Senegal, Dakar

165 Guinea-Bissau, Bissau

166 Comores, Moroni

167 Timor-Leste, Dili

168 Brunei, Bandar Seri Begawan

169 Cape Verde, Praia

170 Philippines, Manila

171 Madagascar, Antananarivo

172 Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou

173 Thailand, Bangkok

174 Mexico, Mexico City

175 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Kingstown

176 Saudi Arabia, Riyadh

177 Andorra, Andorra la Vella

178 Greece, Athens

179 French Polynesia, Papeete

180 Guatemala, Guatemala City

181 Lithuania, Vilnius

182 Georgia Republic of, Tbilisi

183 Somalia, Mogadishu

184 USA, Phoenix Ariz

185 Honduras, Tegucigalpa

186 Montenegro, Podgorica

187 South Africa, Pretoria

188 Egypt, Cairo

189 Guyana, Georgetown

190 USA, Las Vegas Nev

191 South Africa, Cape Town

192 Poland, Warsaw

193 Armenia, Yerevan

194 Afghanistan, Kabul

195 Haiti, Port-au-Prince

196 Gibraltar, Gibraltar

197 Cuba, Havana

198 Cyprus, Nicosia

199 Jordan, Amman

200 Fiji, Suva

201 USA, Detroit Mich

202 Benin, Cotonou

203 USA, Denver Colo

204 Grenada, Saint Georges

205 Palau, Melekeok

206 Seychelles, Victoria

207 Panama, Panama City

208 South Africa, Durban

209 USA, Cleveland Ohio

210 Costa Rica, San Jose

211 Kenya, Nairobi

212 Belarus, Minsk

213 Saint Kitts and Nevis, Basseterre

214 USA, Atlanta GA

215 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

216 Northern Mariana Islands, Saipan

217 USA, Charlotte NC

218 Iraq, Baghdad

219 Algeria, Algiers

220 Dominica, Roseau

221 Oman, Muscat

222 USA, Jacksonville Fla

223 Gambia, Banjul

224 Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Johns

225 USA, Milwaukee Wis

226 Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo

227 Eritrea, Asmara

228 USA, Pittsburgh Penn

229 Botswana, Gaborone

230 Mozambique, Maputo

231 French Guiana, Cayenne

232 Serbia, Belgrade

233 Niger, Niamey

234 Slovenia, Ljubljana

235 USA, Tampa Fla

236 China, Wuhan

237 China, Shenzhen

238 Latvia, Riga

239 Saudi Arabia, Jeddah

240 USA, Dallas Tex

241 Vietnam, Hanoi

242 USA, Fort Worth Tex

243 Laos, Vientiane

244 USA, San Antonio Tex

245 Moldova, Chisinau

246 USA, Houston Tex

247 China, Dalian

248 Nicaragua, Managua

249 Burundi, Bujumbura

250 Belize, Belmopan

251 USA, Columbus Ohio

252 USA, St Louis MO

253 Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar

254 China, Macao

255 Romania, Bucharest

256 Equatorial Guinea, Malabo

257 USA, Austin Tex

258 Ethiopia, Addis Ababa

259 Macedonia, Skopje

260 El Salvador, San Salvador

261 Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City

262 Mauritania, Nouakchott

263 Bangladesh, Dhaka

264 USA, El Paso Tex

265 Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

266 Mauritius, Port Louis

267 Saint Lucia, Castries

268 USA, Memphis Tenn

269 Argentina, Buenos Aires

270 Paraguay, Asuncion

271 Kosovo, Pristina

272 Ecuador, Quito

273 Myanmar, Yangon

274 China, Guangzhou

275 Lesotho, Maseru

276 Pakistan, Lahore

277 Morocco, Rabat

278 Bulgaria, Sofia

279 USA, Indianapolis Ind

280 Swaziland, Mbabane

281 China, Tianjin

282 Zimbabwe, Harare

283 Pakistan, Islamabad

284 Nepal, Kathmandu

285 Suriname, Paramaribo

286 Albania, Tirana

287 Uzbekistan, Tashkent

288 Pakistan, Karachi

289 Uganda, Kampala

290 Korea Democratic Republic of, Pyongyang

291 Tajikistan, Dushanbe

292 Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo

293 Libya, Tripoli

294 Bolivia, La Paz

295 Cambodia, Phnom Penh

296 Sri Lanka, Colombo

297 Tunisia, Tunis

298 Bhutan, Thimphu

299 Tonga, NukuAlofa

300 Yemen, Sanaa


Figures used in this report were taken from the cost of living database as at 1 September 2010. The ranks are based on the overall cost of living index using all 13 basket groups with New York as the base city (Cost of living index = 100).

Steven Coleman is Chief Instigator at the most comprehensive global relocation calculator available, an internet service that is used primarily to calculate expatriate salary levels for global assignments, which can be found at

Detailed rankings for each of 13 Basket Groups can be found per location at

Article from


Global Maritime Distress Safety System

Global Maritime Distress Safety System

Components of GMDSS

The main types of equipment used in GMDSS are:

Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)

Main article: Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon

Cospas-Sarsat is an international satellite-based search and rescue system, established by Canada, France, the United States, and Russia. These four countries jointly helped develop the 406 MHz Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB), an element of the GMDSS designed to operate with Cospas-Sarsat system. These automatic-activating EPIRBs, now required on SOLAS ships, commercial fishing vessels, and all passenger ships, are designed to transmit to alert rescue coordination centers via the satellite system from anywhere in the world. The original COSPAS / SARSAT system used Polar orbiting satellites but in recent years the system has been expanded to also include 4 GEOSTATIONARY satellites. Newest designs incorporate GPS receivers to transmit highly accurate positions (within about 20 metres)of the distress position. The original COSPAS / SARSAT satellites could calculate EPIRBs position to within about 3 nautical miles by using Doppler techniques. By the end of 2010 EPIRB manufacturers may be offering AIS (Automatic Identification System) enabled beacons. The service-ability of these items are checked monthly and annually and have limited battery shelf life betweeen 2 to 5 years using mostly Lithium type batteries. 406 MHz EPIRB’s transmit a Hexadecimal registration number which is linked to a database of information about the vessel.


Main article: Navtex

Navtex is an international, automated system for instantly distributing maritime navigational warnings, weather forecasts and warnings, search and rescue notices and similar information to ships. A small, low-cost and self-contained “smart” printing radio receiver installed on the bridge, or the place from where the ship is navigated, and checks each incoming message to see if it has been received during an earlier transmission, or if it is of a category of no interest to the ship’s master. The frequency of transmission of these messages is 518 kHz in English, while 490 kHz is used to broadcast in local language.

The messages are coded with a header code identified by the using alphabets to represent broadcasting stations, type of messages, and followed by two figures indicating the serial number of the message.


Satellite systems operated by the Inmarsat, overseen by IMSO, International Mobile Satellite Organization are also important elements of the GMDSS. The types of Inmarsat ship earth station terminals recognized by the GMDSS are: Inmarsat B, C and F77. Inmarsat B and F77, an updated version of the now redundant Inmarsat A, provide ship/shore, ship/ship and shore/ship telephone, telex and high-speed data services, including a distress priority telephone and telex service to and from rescue coordination centers. Fleet 77 fully supports the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) and includes advanced features such as emergency call prioritisation. The Inmarsat C provides ship/shore, shore/ship and ship/ship store-and-forward data and email messaging, the capability for sending preformatted distress messages to a rescue coordination center, and the Inmarsat C SafetyNET service. The Inmarsat C SafetyNET service is a satellite-based worldwide maritime safety information broadcast service of high seas weather warnings, NAVAREA navigational warnings, radionavigation warnings, ice reports and warnings generated by the USCG-conducted International Ice Patrol, and other similar information not provided by NAVTEX. SafetyNET works similarly to NAVTEX in areas outside NAVTEX coverage.

Inmarsat C equipment is relatively small and lightweight, and costs much less than an Inmarsat B or F77. Inmarsat B and F77 ship earth stations require relatively large gyro-stabilized antennas; the antenna size of the Inmarsat C is much smaller.

Under a cooperative agreement with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), combined meteorological observations and AMVER reports can now be sent to both the USCG AMVER Center, and NOAA, using an Inmarsat C ship earth station, at no charge. .

SOLAS now requires that Inmarsat C equipment have an integral satellite navigation receiver, or be externally connected to a satellite navigation receiver. That connection will ensure accurate location information to be sent to a rescue coordination center if a distress alert is ever transmitted.

Also the new LRIT log range tracking systems are upgraded via GMDSS inmarsat C which are also complient along with inbuilt SSAS which is ship security alarm system

High Frequency

A GMDSS system may include High Frequency (HF) radiotelephone and radiotelex (narrow-band direct printing) equipment, with calls initiated by digital selective calling (DSC). Worldwide broadcasts of maritime safety information are also made on HF narrow-band direct printing channels.

Search and Rescue Locating device

Main article: Search and Rescue Locating device

The GMDSS installation on ships include one or more Search and Rescue Locating device devices which are used to locate survival craft or distressed vessels by creating a series of dots on a rescuing ship’s 3 cm radar display or operating on frequencies dedicated for AIS . The detection range between these devices and ships, dependent upon the height of the ship’s radar mast and the height of the Search and Rescue Locating device, is normally about 15 km (8 nautical miles). Note that a marine radar may not detect a Search and Rescue Locating device even within this distance, if the radar settings are not optimized for Search and Rescue Locating device detection.

Once detected by radar, the Search and Rescue Locating device will produce a visual and aural indication.

Digital Selective Calling

The IMO also introduced Digital Selective Calling (DSC) on MF, HF and VHF maritime radios as part of the GMDSS system. DSC is primarily intended to initiate ship-to-ship, ship-to-shore and shore-to-ship radiotelephone and MF/HF radiotelex calls. DSC calls can also be made to individual stations, groups of stations, or “all stations” in one’s reach. Each DSC-equipped ship, shore station and group is assigned a unique 9-digit Maritime Mobile Service Identity.

DSC distress alerts, which consist of a preformatted distress message, are used to initiate emergency communications with ships and rescue coordination centers. DSC was intended to eliminate the need for persons on a ship’s bridge or on shore to continuously guard radio receivers on voice radio channels, including VHF channel 16 (156.8 MHz) and 2182 kHz now used for distress, safety and calling. A listening watch aboard GMDSS-equipped ships on 2182 kHz ended on February 1, 1999. In May 2002, IMO decided to postpone cessation of a VHF listening watch aboard ships. That watchkeeping requirement had been scheduled to end on 1 February 2005.

IMO and ITU both require that the DSC-equipped MF/HF and VHF radios be externally connected to a satellite navigation receiver. That connection will ensure accurate location information is sent to a rescue coordination center if a distress alert is ever transmitted. The FCC requires that all new VHF and MF/HF maritime radiotelephones type accepted after June 1999 have at least a basic DSC capability.

VHF digital selective calling also has other capabilities beyond those required for the GMDSS. The Coast Guard uses this system to track vessels in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Vessel Traffic Service. IMO and the USCG also plan to require ships carry a Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System, which will be DSC-compatible. Countries having a GMDSS A1 Area should be able to identify and track AIS-equipped vessels in its waters without any additional radio equipment. A DSC-equipped radio cannot be interrogated and tracked unless that option was included by the manufacturer, and unless the user configures it to allow tracking.

GMDSS telecommunications equipment should not be reserved for emergency use only. The International Maritime Organization encourages mariners to use that equipment for routine as well as safety telecommunications.

GMDSS Sea Areas

GMDSS sea areas serve two purposes: to describe areas where GMDSS services are available, and to define what radio equipment GMDSS ships must carry (carriage requirements). Prior to the GMDSS, the number and type of radio safety equipment ships had to carry depended upon its tonnage. With GMDSS, the number and type of radio safety equipment ships have to carry depends upon the GMDSS areas in which they travel.

In addition to equipment listed below, all GMDSS-regulated ships must carry a satellite EPIRB, a NAVTEX receiver (if they travel in any areas served by NAVTEX), an Inmarsat-C SafetyNET receiver (if they travel in any areas not served by NAVTEX), a DSC-equipped VHF radiotelephone, two (if between 300 and less than 500 GRT)or three VHF handhelds (if 500 GRT or more), and one 9GHz search and rescue radar transponder (SART).

Sea Area A1

An area within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one VHF coast station in which continuous digital selective calling (Ch.70/156.525MHz) alerting and radiotelephony services are available.Such an area could extend typically 20 nautical miles (37 km) to 30 nautical miles (56 km) from the Coast Station.

Sea Area A2

An area, excluding Sea Area A1, within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one MF coast station in which continuous DSC (2187.5 kHz) alerting and radiotelephony services are available.For planning purposes this area typically extends to up to 180 nautical miles (330 km) offshore during daylight hours,but would exclude any A1 designated areas.In practice,satisfactory coverage may often be achieved out to around 400 nautical miles (740 km) offshore during night time.

Sea Area A3

An area,excluding sea areas A1 and A2, within the coverage of an INMARSAT geostationary satellite.This area lies between about latitude 76 Degree NORTH and SOUTH,but excludes A1 and/or A2 designated areas.Inmarsat guarantee their system will work between 70 South and 70 North though it will often work to 76 degrees South or North.

Sea Area A4

An area outside Sea Areas A1, A2 and A3 is called Sea Area A4. This is essentially the polar regions, north and south of about 70 degrees of latitude, excluding any A1 or A2 areas.

GMDSS Radio Equipment Required for U.S. Coastal Voyages

Presently, until an A1 or A2 Sea Area is established, GMDSS-mandated ships operating off the U.S. coast must fit to Sea Areas A3 (or A4) regardless of where they operate. U.S. ships whose voyage allows them to always remain within VHF channel 16 coverage of U.S. Coast Guard stations may apply to the Federal Communications Commission for an individual waiver to fit to Sea Area A1 requirements. Similarly, those who remain within 2182 kHz coverage of U.S. Coast Guard stations may apply for a waiver to fit to Sea Area A2 requirements.


Since the invention of radio at the end of the 19th century, ships at sea have relied on Morse code, invented by Samuel Morse and first used in 1844, for distress and safety telecommunications. The need for ship and coast radio stations to have and use radiotelegraph equipment, and to listen to a common radio frequency for Morse encoded distress calls, was recognized after the sinking of the liner RMS Titanic in the North Atlantic in 1912. The U.S. Congress enacted legislation soon after, requiring U.S. ships to use Morse code radiotelegraph equipment for distress calls. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU), now a United Nations agency, followed suit for ships of all nations. Morse encoded distress calling has saved thousands of lives since its inception almost a century ago, but its use requires skilled radio operators spending many hours listening to the radio distress frequency. Its range on the medium frequency (MF) distress band (500 kHz) is limited, and the amount of traffic Morse signals can carry is also limited.

Not all ship-to-shore radio communications were short range. Some radio stations provided long-range radiotelephony services, such as radio telegrams and radio telex calls, on the HF bands (3-30 MHz) enabling worldwide communications with ships. For example, Portishead Radio, which was the world’s busiest radiotelephony station, provided HF long-range services. In 1974, it had 154 radio operators who handled over 20 million words per year. Such large radiotelephony stations employed large numbers of people and were expensive to operate. By the end of the 1980s, satellite services had started to take an increasingly large share of the market for ship-to-shore communications.

For these reasons, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a United Nations agency specializing in safety of shipping and preventing ships from polluting the seas, began looking at ways of improving maritime distress and safety communications. In 1979, a group of experts drafted the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, which called for development of a global search and rescue plan. This group also passed a resolution calling for development by IMO of a Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) to provide the communication support needed to implement the search and rescue plan. This new system, which the world’s maritime nations are implementing, is based upon a combination of satellite and terrestrial radio services, and has changed international distress communications from being primarily ship-to-ship based to ship-to-shore (Rescue Coordination Center) based. It spelled the end of Morse code communications for all but a few users, such as amateur radio operators. The GMDSS provides for automatic distress alerting and locating in cases where a radio operator doesn’t have time to send an SOS or MAYDAY call, and, for the first time, requires ships to receive broadcasts of maritime safety information which could prevent a distress from happening in the first place. In 1988, IMO amended the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, requiring ships subject to it fit GMDSS equipment. Such ships were required to carry NAVTEX and satellite EPIRBs by 1 August 1993, and had to fit all other GMDSS equipment by 1 February 1999. US ships were allowed to fit GMDSS in lieu of Morse telegraphy equipment by the Telecommunications Act of 1996.

Licensing of Operators

National maritime authorities may issue various classes of licenses. The General Operator Certificate is required on SOLAS vessels operating also outside GMDSS Sea Area A1, while a Restricted Operator Certificate is needed on SOLAS vessels operated solely within GMDSS Sea Area A1,

Long Range Certificate may be issued, and is required on non-SOLAS vessels operating outside GMDSS Sea Area A1, while a Short Range Certificate is issued for non-SOLAS vessels operating only inside GMDSS Sea Area A1.

Finally there is a Restricted radiotelephone operator’s certificate, which is similar to the Short Range Certificate but limited VHR DSC radio operation. Some countries do not consider this adequate for GMDSS qualification.

In the United States four different GMDSS certificates are issued. A GMDSS Radio Maintainer’s License allows a person to maintain, install,and repair GMDSS equipment at sea. A GMDSS Radio Operator’s License is necessary for a person to use required GMDSS equipment. The holder of both certificates can be issued one GMDSS Radio Operator/Maintainer License. Finally, the GMDSS Restricted License is available for VHF operations only within 20 nautical miles (37 km) of the coast. To obtain any of these licenses a person must be a U.S. citizen or otherwise eligible for work in the country, be able to communicate in English, and take written examinations approved by the Federal Communications Commission. Like the amateur radio examinations, these are given by private, FCC-approved groups. These are generally not the same agencies who administer the ham tests. Written test elements 1 and 7 are required for the Operator license, and elements 1 and 7R for the Restricted Operator. (Passing element 1 also automatically qualifies the applicant for the Marine Radiotelephone Operator Permit, the MROP.)

For the Maintainer license, written exam element 9 must be passed. However, to obtain this certificate an applicant must also hold a General radiotelephone operator license (GROL), which requires passing commercial written exam elements 1 and 3 (and thus supersedes the MROP). Upon the further passing of optional written exam element 8 the ship radar endorsement will be added to both the GROL and Maintainer licenses. This allows the holder to adjust, maintain, and repair shipboard radar equipment.

Until March 25, 2008 GMDSS operator and maintainer licenses expired after five years but could be renewed upon payment of a fee. On that date all new certificates were issued valid for the lifetimes of their holders. For those still valid but previously issued with expiration dates, the FCC states:

Any GMDSS Radio Operator’s License, Restricted GMDSS Radio Operator’s License, GMDSS Radio Maintainer’s License, GMDSS Radio Operator/Maintainer License, or Marine Radio Operator Permit that was active, i.e., had not expired, as of March 25, 2008, does not have to be renewed.

Since an older certificate does show an expiration date, for crewmembers sailing internationally it may be worth paying the fee (as of 2008 it was ) to avoid any confusion with local authorities.

Finally, it should be noted that to actually serve as a GMDSS operator on most commercial vessels the United States Coast Guard requires additional classroom training and practical experience beyond just holding a license.

See also

Nautical portal

Marine VHF radio the GMDSS equipments.

Search and Rescue Transponder

Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)


Radio horizon

500 kHz

2182 kHz



^ Johnson, B (1994). “English in maritime radiotelephony”. World Englishes 13 (1): 8391. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.1994.tb00285.x. 

^ “The story of Portishead Radio: Long range maritime radio communications: 1920 1995”. 2001-04-06. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 

^ FCC – Commercial Radio Operator Licenses


^ MarComms – GMDSS Training and Certification

External links

COSPAS-SARSAT system home page

Search And Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT)

FCC – Commercial Operator Licenes: Examinations FCC

FCC – GMDSS Radio Maintainer’s License (DM) FCC

FCC – GMDSS Radio Operator’s License (DO) FCC

FCC – Ship Radar Endorsement FCC

FCC – Commercial Operator Licenses: Examination Question Pools FCC

GMDSS Ship Inspection Checklist FCC

“CCIR 493-4 HF Selcall Information Resource”. HFLINK. 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-10. 

Categories: Emergency communication | Law of the sea | Maritime communication | Rescue equipment

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