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Superconducting Filters In Base Stations And Other Network Optimization Td’s Role

0 Introduction Superconducting technology is considered of strategic importance in the 21st century high-tech one, in energy, information, transportation, instrumentation, defense and other aspects important applications. Currently active in the world are in the application technology of superconductivity.

Superconducting filter using conductor at very low temperatures (-200 or so) when the conductor made of resistance similar to the principle of zero band-pass filter, used in mobile Communicate Base station receiver front end, significant improvements Mobile base stations Uplink performance, improve base station receiver sensitivity and lower band, the band all kinds of interference, thereby improving the signal transmission quality, extend coverage up to enhance signal transmission rate.

Of superconducting filter in TD-SCDMA base stations and other network optimization in the role of China is actively developing TD-SCDMA system and the 2G network optimization system is important.

1 mobile communications uplink and downlink analysis

1.1 Mobile communication is mainly limited by the uplink

Mobile phone base station transmit power is much greater than transmission power, and mobile phone base station receiver sensitivity and receiver sensitivity is almost the same. Therefore, mobile communication is mainly limited by the uplink, uplink coverage area are often less than the downlink coverage area.

In addition, as users continue to increase, mobile communication network is bound to increase the number of base stations. This allows access to the base station receiver interference and noise growing and increased the burden on the uplink.

1.2 to improve the general approach to the uplink

General approach to improve the uplink are: installation of the base station transmitter output cavity RF filter to suppress the base station transmitter spurious radiation. Base station receiver uses diversity reception mode, and also used in the RF input of the cavity filter to improve the receiver sensitivity and inhibit a variety of band interference.

However, the filter cavity Q value can only be reached around 5000, relatively large passband loss, stop-band attenuation is not enough, the transition zone are not steep. Therefore, this method can not effectively solve the problem uplink interference, the base station receiver in-band interference and background noise is still relatively high, the base station receiver sensitivity and capacity utilization is not high.

2 superconducting filter is the best way to solve one of the base station interference

Superconducting filter is to use conductor at very low temperatures (about -200 ) resistance is approximately zero when the surface characteristics of the filter is made, the Q value of up to 10 million, higher than the filter’s Q value cavity nearly 20 times. Therefore, the superconducting filter passband with minimal insertion loss ( 60dB) and very steep transition zone (-100dB/400KHz). After the superconducting filter

with the same working conditions in the ultra low-noise low-temperature release (LNA) (Gain: 12dB), with very low noise figure (

I am an expert from China Products, usually analyzes all kind of industries situation, such as wood clothes rack , over the door racks.

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Michael Young working on jack-of-all-trades role

Michael Young working on jack-of-all-trades role
Michael Young working on jack-of-all-trades role
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Texas Comptroller’s Office Schedules March Tax Help Seminars
Comptroller representatives will answer questions and provide assistance to attendees.
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Inbox: Everyday role in Texas unlikely for Vlad

Inbox: Everyday role in Texas unlikely for Vlad
Inbox: Everyday role in Texas unlikely for Vlad
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Gayus Tambunan in jail again
Sentenced to 7 years behind bars — but can authorities keep him there? Thursday, January 20th, 2011 02:01:00 JAKARTA: An Indonesian taxman caught bribing his way out of prison and watching a tennis tournament while wearing a wig was sentenced to seven years behind bars for corruption yesterday, angering many in a nation fed up with graft.
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Sri Lanka Not Ruling Out Tamil Role In Lahore Attacks: Fm

fm
by mrkvm

Sri Lanka Not Ruling Out Tamil Role In Lahore Attacks: Fm

ISLAMABAD  — Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Rohitha Bogollagama said Wednesday he could not rule out the possibility that Tamil Tigers were involved in the attack on his country’s cricket team in Lahore.

Seven Sri Lankan players, along with an assistant coach, were injured while eight Pakistanis, including six policemen, were killed in the attack launched as the team bus was heading to the stadium on Tuesday.

The foreign minister, who flew to Lahore to oversee the team’s evacuation, met Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari, Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani and Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi.

“We do not rule out,” the involvement of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) as they steadily lose territory to government forces, he told a joint news conference with Qureshi.

“Desperation of LTTE is something we are all looking at.”

The Sri Lankan cricket side was in Pakistan in place of the Indian team, which pulled out of a scheduled tour following the Mumbai attacks in November that New Delhi blamed on Pakistan-based militants.

The foreign minister said the investigation into the Lahore attacks was the responsibility of Pakistan and that “we have confidence in Pakistan.”

Qureshi said Pakistan had set up a special investigation committee which had “carried out very good work in very short time” but he refused to elaborate.

The attack on the island nation’s team was the first “terrorist” attack on Sri Lankans abroad, Bogollagama said.

However he was quick to declare Pakistan “our friend”.

During his meeting with Gilani, he said that in cooperation with friendly countries like Pakistan, his government “would ensure that the LTTE terrorist?s designs to find sanctuaries abroad are foiled,” a statement said.

The meeting was attended by senior defence and interior ministry officials, including chief of military intelligence, Lieutenant General Ahmad Shuja Pasha, the statement said.

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These Folks Can Play a Key Role for Diabetics

These Folks Can Play a Key Role for Diabetics

A new study in the “Journal of the American Dietetic Association” reviews the evidence and nutrition recommendations for adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is a thorough and helpful review that presents 29 key nutrition practice guidelines in order to best support people with diabetes.

There is strong evidence that “medical nutrition therapy” provided by dietitians is an effective and essential therapy in the management of diabetes. They have unique skills that can really help with the process.

The study examined all the past literature reviews to distill evidence-based nutrition recommendations and practice guidelines regarding the major factors of nutrition that diabetics have to be conscious of. These are carbohydrates (intake, sucrose, non-nutritive sweeteners, glycemic index, and fiber), protein intake, heart disease, and weight management.

When dietitians have the most up-to-date information, they can encourage lifestyle changes and select appropriate interventions for diabetics. These include staying consistent in daily carbohydrate intake, adjusting insulin doses to match carbohydrate levels, substituting sucrose-containing foods, proper protein intake, eating nutrients that will protect the heart, weight management strategies, regular physical activity, and use of self-monitored blood glucose data.

Now, on the same note, but slightly different, you can help yourself with some lifestyle choices to manage the disease. Learn all you can about diabetes to understand it fully. Wear a tag or bracelet that identifies you as a diabetic in case of emergency. Get a yearly physical and regular eye exams. Keep your immunizations up-to-date. Treat your feet well and pay attention to signs of skin problems. Keep your cholesterol and blood pressure under control. If you smoke, seek help in quitting, because it will make a huge difference. Drink alcohol only in moderation. And don’t underestimate the seriousness of stress. Try to control stress and limit its destructive tendencies on the body.

To read more from Doctors Health Press, click here

 

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Role of internet in real estate business

Role of internet in real estate business

Finding houses to live in often creates a lot of problem; as the world population is increasing, the need for houses is also increasing, as a result of which people often do not get the type of houses they need. Even the real estate brokers sometimes do not have appropriate houses in their stock for the common people. Besides, searching for an honest and dependable real estate broker is also pretty problematic and time consuming. People have to spend a lot of time and visit several realtors to choose the best one. This can be prevented if people take the help of internet. The websites published by the real estate brokers prove to be very helpful for people seeking houses. The houses available to that particular real estate broker companies are displayed on the website and detailed information about that real estate company and the facilities they provide are also given in the websites. The use of internet for searching houses has helped the common people a lot. Nowadays, most people take help of the internet to buy the houses they need.

If you are one such person searching for a good house in Dallas, then you should search the internet for the Dallas real estate companies. As there are plenty of houses available in Dallas, people often find problems choosing the appropriate one; besides, the number of real estate companies in Dallas is also large which also causes much problems. First of all, both these are very time consuming and secondly, people find it very hard to find a proper house within their budget. Searching for Dallas real estate brokers and Dallas homes for sale in person should be avoided if possible; people should always search the internet first. Now, when a person finds a house in the website, he can visit the real estate broker and take information about it. Following this way, many people have succeeded in getting new houses at good prices. Opting for Dallas home instead of that in other places is a very good and intelligent idea. Since Dallas is a growing city and large numbers of industries and businesses are growing up in there, many people from other states and cities are flocking in Dallas in search of jobs.

The growth of Dallas has lead to the growth of numerous Dallas homes for the people shifting in there. As a result of this, the market is pretty good in there. And the Dallas real estate companies are also making good fortune from that. Transactions of houses are done in large extent all over Dallas by the realtors. Most of the experienced and well known real estate companies have got large numbers of houses for sale in their list, due to which people do not have to face any sort of problems in there. Besides this, the internet has also contributed a lot in this. The websites of the Dallas real estate companies have helped the common people searching for houses a lot to get good Dallas homes.

If you are looking for Dallas homes for sale in dallas real estate usearealtyservices offers you the best dallas homes.

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A Role of Ethics and Social Responsibilities in Management

A Role of Ethics and Social Responsibilities in Management

Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values(A.Alhemoud). Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused  ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness  or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards.

Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of management. Corporations have to maintain the same standards as an individual person and, in addition, corporations, as  organizational units, have their own social responsibilities toward customers, employees and society. However, any business should keep it’s original purpose of functioning – making profit. Balancing the traditional standards of profitability and burden of social responsibilities is not an easy task. In recent years it has been a trend of setting standards of corporate ethics according to high degree of morale.

To be able to keep the ethical standards management must follow the law. However, there are some complications in enforcing it. The law affects and is affected by social forces and prevailing ethical standards. “Although the law can codify societies ethical

________________________________________________________________________

Alhemoud, Ali  ” Management Ethics is Smart Business.”

values, ethical decision making transcends the law in that 1) the law deals with actions not

with thoughts, and therefore it does not (and cannot) codify all ethical requirements; and

2) an individual or a group may perceive a given law as immoral, not as a guide to ethical behavior.” ( A. Alhemoud). How, then, a company can ensure that its code of ethics is both followed and enforced ?  ” …Defense firm such as General Dynamics and TRW, and an information company, Dun & Broadstreet, have appointed internal ethics officers or ombudsmen.  Whether employees have faith in these safeguards against corporate retaliation is hard to tell, though it is one step forward (The Economist August 19 1995)

The ethical codes of corporations that that get so important nowadays also did not  come into being at once. They emerged from individual ethical standards and corporate consciousness.  Moreover, the public demand  for prosecution of any violations of corporate, professional and business ethics has been increased. Finally, mass media made possible for society reveal secrets that were kept from public before. So, the business conduct regulations were created to “draft guidelines for ethical conduct, develop a process for monitoring business practices and recommend ways to correct questionable activities.” (J.Byrne) All these measures were taken to balance various social responsibilities with the high degree of moral and sense of attainment.

Unfortunately, cooperation of unethical behavior of a manager with a journalist may lead to an undesirable results. “Early in December  1995 , Smart Money’s editor-at-large James J. Cramer wrote an article for his monthly column; Unconventional Wisdom,

________________________________________________________________________

Alhemoud, Ali “Management Ethics is Smart Business.”

 

Recommending four  to “oprahn” stocks.  Trading records show that at the at the

peak, Cramer’s  firm had paper profits of more than  million on the stocks. The gain

occurred because he had adopted at least three of the “oprhan” sometimes before writing the article. Cramers article said that he was buying one of the stock but did not disclose that”(F.Lalli). Clearly, neither the management nor the editors had in any way cared of conducting  the ethical behavior and as the result  the innocent investors were hurt.

On the other hand, being ethical can be clever marketing strategy. Increasingly, consumers are swayed by  “non-commercial” factors, such as whether the product harms the environment . “Firms such as Ben & Jerry’s, an ice cream maker and Body Shop international, a cosmetics retailer, have enforced their brands by publicizing their ethical standards…Calmins Engine , a maker of diesel engines , made the product greener while lobbing for stricter pollution laws. Dp Pont, a leading producer of ozone damaging CFCs, became an early member of anti-CFCs lobby  partly because it knew it was well ahead of its rivals in developing alternative.”( The Economist December 23 1996)

But ethical self promotion can backfire. As in the case of  Body Shop company that was publicly enforced to rephrase a statement that its product were not tasted on animals (Some other companies did that in the past). This accident made many consumers to question Body Shop ethical standards.

Another interesting issue in corporate management is social responsibilities. Social ________________________________________________________________________      Frank Lalli “A Question of professional ethics”

responsibilities can be defined as set of obligations an organization has to protect and enhance the society in which it functions.(Ricky W. Griffin. “Management”). There are a few main components of social responsibilities.

Any business has responsibilities to its customers. The paramount duty in this respect is to provide  customers with quality and safe products. Unfortunately, not all businesses follow this rule. The example of such deception is tobacco industry, which delibelatry manipulated with the level of nicotine in cigarettes. Despite of declaration of managers, scrutinize research made it clear that industry tried to maintain the addictive level of nicotine. The purpose of it was far from humanistic – addicted smokers kept buying cigarettes, making the industry prosperous and profitable. There has been a number of other different customers’ abuses such as sale of fruits with overdosed chemicals, breast implants for women and etc.

Though, the responsibilities to its customers is crucial point of management, the way managers treat employees is another parameter of evaluation of companies ethical well- being.  Unfortunately, the most concern of  managers is theirs own job rather than theirs employees.

Another problem is equal employment opportunities for everyone. Although a lot was done to destroy the system that kept women and minorities away from the top management positions, many corporations still rely on white men’s stereotypes and prejudice. Women are considered just as accessories for men and are not treated equally.

In fact, firms attitude toward employees often determines the way employees feel about company. As a rule, corporate code of ethics contains the pattern of behavior, an employer expect from employee.

Another responsibilities of the companies’ management is to stockholders.  This usually rises a so called “agent problem” (Dyckman, Intermediate Accounting). Managers are in control of the property stockholders. However, the interests of these two groups may not be the same. As manager is looking for more power and prestige, they can tend to less profitable operations. Also corporate officials may vote for high salaries and bonuses for themselves, decreasing the dividends of stockholders by that.

There is no particular solution for all of these issues. There is only hope that ethical standards and social responsibilities would guide every manager throughout his/her career. “Professional conduct should be governed by a code of ethics that reflects positively on the practitioner and managerial profession. Simply stated, nothing should prevent a manager from maintaining high ethical standards and social responsibility in the quest for high performance and quality.”

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Stress as Related to Diabetes and Hypertension. the Role of Antioxidants

Stress as Related to Diabetes and Hypertension. the Role of Antioxidants

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Life styles of people have dramatically changed over the years and this has invariably increased the risk of diabetes and hypertension.

1.1 GENERAL PERSPECTIVE
The cause of most disease cannot be enumerated, but factors that enhance the effect of the disease can be typically analyzed. People from different backgrounds have different life styles that can either contribute positively or negatively to their health (Apochi, 2004) A big question is, “How do people manage stress”, and “How often do people eat fruits and vegetable” Stress basically increases the sugar level in blood; sugar are among the basic energy storage molecule in the body (Raven & Johnson 1996). Imperatively, how often do people go for medical check up? Is our environment conducive for living, and have we considered the environmental risk factors responsible for certain ailment like Diabetes and hypertension? Well, Drugs, hectic life style, food type, environmental condition, habits and more could be leading factor linked to high blood pressure, Diabetes and many other infections. Considering Diabetes and hypertension genetics cannot be disregarded as most of such ailment could be inherited (www.bhf.org.uk).
A simple questionnaire containing information that will aid a simple statistical analysis which will further “breed” an hypothesis on whether or what  causes Diabetes, hypertension, stress and effect of antioxidant on these issues. Antioxidants basically are found in fruits and vegetable they help in the reduction of oxidative stress, which may also be a link to both hypertension and Diabetes (Health Monitor, 2006).

Aim of this data collection
The data collection is to aid the processing and derivation of information leading to drawing out a hypothesis relating to lifestyle, feeding habit, as related to stress-linked hypertension and diabetes and or genetically inherited diabetes and hypertension plus the effective role of antioxidant or the principle of antioxidant in curbing such issues. Information regarding genetics as conflicted to causes of hypertension and diabetes will be compared to physical data collection and correlation of this data to brood an effective link/cause of both diabetes and hypertension amongst adult workers.
Facts were drawn from Victoria Island, Ikeja and Gbagada; Bankers, Traders, Doctors, Nurses, Insurance Company workers, Business men & women and more gave information on their life style as related to their health issues. A little bit controversial, people from both angles (Diabetic, hypertensive and non Diabetic and hypertensive) gave information similarly regarding their life style and living conditions. But, with the help of a statistical analysis we will be able to draw a conclusion and simple hypothesis on this issue.

1.2 HYPERTENSION
Experts know that many different factors are linked to high blood pressure, but experts do not still fully understand the exact cause.

Factors that are linked to high blood pressure include:
Aging
Drinking more than 2 alcohol drinks a day for men and more than one alcohol drink a day for women.
Eating a lot of sodium salt
Being over weight or obese
Having high cholesterol
Not exercising
Being under a lot of stress.
Eating Diets low in potassium, magnesium and calcium
Being insulin resistant.

On the generality of this, blood pressure is the measure of the force that the blood applies to the walls of the arteries as it flows through them. It is normal for blood pressure to increase when you exert yourself, or when you feel stressed or anxious. But if your blood pressure is consistently higher than normal at rest, this is high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Statistics has it that about 3 in 10 adults have high blood pressure in the UK. It is much more common in older people: 7 out of 10 people in their 70s have high blood pressure (www.bpassoc.org.uk). In Gbagada, Victoria Island and Ikeja we will find out the rate at which people have high blood pressure.

Blood is pumped normally around the body by the heart carrying oxygen and nutrients. As a result of the pumping action of the heart and the size and flexibility of the arteries that carry blood, the blood is under pressure. This blood pressure is an essential and normal part of the way the body work.

High blood pressure will develop if:
The walls of your layer arteries lose their elasticity and become rigid.
The small blood vessels become narrower (ww.bhf.org.uk)
It is important for people to do medical check-up on blood pressure regularly. It is very dangerous if it is not properly controlled. How can it be controlled if you don’t check it up to know your blood pressure status? However, blood pressure is measured with a monitor called Sphygmomanometer. This is a digital box attached to a tube with a cuff on the end. The cuff is placed around the upper arm and inflated to a certain level, then deflated slowly. A sensor in the cuff provides information about the blood pressure or a Doctor or Nurse will listen to the blood flow using a stethoscope. The result is expressed as two numbers such as 120/80 mm GH (“One Hundred and Twenty over Eighty Millimeters of Mercury”).The top figure is the systolic blood pressure: A measure of pressure when your heart muscle is contracting and pumping blood. This is the maximum pressure in your blood system. The bottom figure is the diastolic blood pressure, this is the pressure between the heart beats when the heart is resting and filling with blood. This is the minimum pressure in your blood system. If you suffer from diabetes is even more important that your blood pressure is lower than this- ideally less than 130/80mmh.

Types of High Blood Pressure
Primary hypertension and Secondary hypertension.
Primary Hypertension: More than 9 in 10 people with high blood pressure have what is called “Primary” or essential hypertension. This means that there is no single clear cause of it. Like I said previously the exact cause of high blood pressure is not fully understood. It is known that some factor to do with your life style can contribute (OLayinka, 2003).
Secondary Hypertension: Around 1 in 20 people with high blood pressure have “secondary hypertension”. This means your condition can be linked to a recognized cause-in fact, it may be a symptom of another underlying disease or factor such as:
Kidney disease
Endocrine disease
Narrowing of the aorta
Steroid medicines
The contraceptive pill
Pregnancy, which can cause pre-eclampsia.
You may also need some test to see if high blood pressure is having an effect on the rest of your body. These may include:
An analysis of urine (protein in your urine may be the first sign of kidney problem).
A blood test, to check your cholesterol and blood sugar levels as well as the condition of your kidneys.
An ECG (Electrocardiogram), which record the electrical changes happening in your heart.

Monitoring
24hrs Ambulatory monitoring. You may need 24-hours testing to measure your blood pressure over 24-hours.
Treatment
Slightly raised blood pressure may not be treated so aggressively, but regular monitory is important. If you have a very severe high blood pressure, you may need to go to hospital for treatment. But it is much more likely that you will be cared for by a Nurse. (www.bpassoc.org.uk, www.bhf.org.uk)

1.3 DIABETES
Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas doesn’t make enough or any of the hormone insulin, or when the insulin produced doesn’t work effectively. In diabetes, this causes the level of glucose in the blood to be too high. Diabetes can also be viewed from this perspective: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia (Dorman, 2004).
There are two main common forms of diabetes, these are the type one diabetes and type two diabetes, and these were initially called the insulin dependent diabetes and non insulin dependent diabetes respectively.
In Type 1 diabetes the cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, causing a severe lack of insulin. This is thought to be the result of the body attacking and destroying its own cells in the pancreas – known as an autoimmune reaction. It’s not clear why this happens, but a number of explanations and possible triggers of this reaction have been proposed. These include:
Infection with a specific virus or bacteria;
Exposure to food-borne chemical toxins; and
Exposure as a very young infant to cow’s milk, where an as yet unidentified component of this triggers the autoimmune reaction in the body.
However, these are only hypotheses and are by no means proven causes. Type 2 diabetes is believed to develop when: The receptors on cells in the body that normally respond to the action of insulin fail to be stimulated by it – this is known as insulin resistance. In response to this more insulin may be produced, and this over-production exhausts the insulin-manufacturing cells in the pancreas; there is simply insufficient insulin available; and the insulin that is available may be abnormal and therefore doesn’t work properly.
The following risk factors increase the chances of someone developing Type 2 diabetes:

Increasing age;
Obesity; and
Physical inactivity.
Rarer causes of diabetes include:
Certain medicines;
Pregnancy (gestational diabetes); and
Any illness or disease that damages the pancreas and affects its ability to produce insulin e.g. pancreatitis.
What doesn’t cause diabetes?
On the cause of this research we will find out what may possibly not cause diabetes and what facilitates diabetes. Many scientists believe that eating sweets or wrong kind of food does not cause diabetes, but obesity instead. However according to our findings obesity is associated with people developing type two diabetes. Further more they also believe that stress does not cause diabetes, although it may be a trigger for the body turning on itself as in the case of Type 1 diabetes. It does, however, make the symptoms worse for those who already have diabetes.
Diabetes is not contagious. Someone with diabetes cannot pass it on to anyone else (Hicks, 2004).

What causes diabetes? It is believed that some drugs could lead to the cause of diabetes. Drugs such as steroids, Dilantin, and others may elevate the blood sugar through a variety of mechanisms. Certain other drugs, such as alloxan, streptozocin, and thiazide diuretics, are toxic to the beta cells of the pancreas and can cause diabetes. Certain syndromes (for example, Prader-Willi, Down’s, Progeria, and Turner’s) may result in a hyperglycemic state; if this state is prolonged, the result can be permanent diabetes. (Guthrie, 2003).
Diabetes resulting in an insulin-dependent state is classified as Type 1 diabetes. While Type 1 diabetes affects only between 5 to10 percent of the diabetic population, its effects on the body can be worse than other forms of diabetes. In the past, Type 1 has been known as juvenile or juvenile-onset diabetes (because it is usually diagnosed in those under thirty), brittle diabetes, unstable diabetes, and ketosis-prone diabetes. People in this classification more frequently exhibit the classic symptoms, usually with ketones present in blood and urine. A blood-sugar level of 800 mg/dl (44 mmol) or more, especially if ketones are not present, indicates a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (a state in which the body is extremely dry (dehydrated), the chemicals in the body are concentrated, and the blood sugar is high). As stated before, diabetes is a syndrome or group of diseases (rather than one disease), leading to the prolonged hyperglycemic state. Type 1 is most associated with the killing of the beta cells, most likely by the body’s own immune system. Either the immune system cannot kill an infecting agent, which then kills the beta cells, or the immune system itself goes “wild,” attacking the body’s own tissue and destroying the beta cells. The cells of the islets of Langerhans are inflamed, resulting from an infectious-disease process (for example, mumps) or, more commonly, from an autoimmune (allergic to self) response.
The autoimmune process results in the circulation of antibodies that may either cause or be caused by beta-cell death. If it is found that the antibodies cause beta-cell destruction (the body fighting what it now considers foreign to itself), the body’s response to the Type 1 diabetes is much less severe (i.e., easier to control) with treatment. Until then, the outcome is a lack of available insulin. While the onset is said to be sudden, changes resulting in decreased insulin availability may have occurred over a longer period of time. In short, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is an inherited defect of the body’s immune system, resulting in destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.  (Guthrie and Guthrie, 2003).

1.4 STRESS RELATED DIABETES
Stress, both physical and mental, can send your blood sugar out of whack (Nelson, 2004).
It’s hard to dispute that most of us live life at breakneck speed. It’s the nature of a fast-paced society, where numerous family, social, and work obligations can easily overpower your precious time and resources. But for people with diabetes, both physical and emotional stress can take a greater toll on health (Nazario, 2004).
This is a simple biological phenomenon that when a person is undergoing stress, the persons blood sugar level rises. During stress hormones like epinephrine (A substance produced by the medulla (inside) of the adrenal gland. The name epinephrine was coined in 1898 by the American pharmacologist and physiologic chemist (biochemist) John Jacob Abel) and cortisol (the primary stress hormone. Cortisol is the major natural GLUCOCORTICOID (GC) in humans) becomes active as their major function amongst others is to raise blood sugar level which, helps to boost energy when needed. Emotional and physical trauma keeps these hormones working as they are designed to aid you when you are stressed. Logically they want to give you energy to fight the cause of such stress, but, the adverse effect becomes eminent. People who aren’t diabetic have compensatory mechanisms to keep blood sugar from swinging out of control. But in people with diabetes, those mechanisms are either lacking or blunted, so they can’t keep a lid on blood sugar, says (David, 2004). When blood sugar levels aren’t controlled well through diet and/or medication, you’re at higher risk for many health complications, including blindness, kidney problems, and nerve damage leading to foot numbness, which can lead to serious injury and hard-to-heal infections. Prolonged elevated blood sugar is also a predecessor to cardiovascular disease, which increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
In diabetes, because of either an absolute lack of insulin, such as type 1 diabetes, or a relative lack of insulin, such as type 2, there isn’t enough insulin to cope with these hormones, so blood sugar levels rise (Richard, 2004).
Anything upsetting like going through a breakup or being laid off is certainly emotionally draining. Being down with the flu or suffering from a urinary tract infection places physical stress on the body. It’s generally these longer-term stressors that tax your system and have much more effect on blood sugar levels. Since stress has virtually become a way of life, you may not even notice you’re frazzled. A lot of people will identify stressors such as an illness in the family (something large) but may not recognize the stress of the holidays or a hectic time at work (something smaller or shorter in duration).

1.5 STRESS RELATED HYPERTENSION.
Reducing stress can help lower blood pressure. Stress is a normal part of life. But too much stress can lead to emotional, psychological and even physical problems — including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, chest pains or irregular heart beats. When you are exposed to long periods of stress, your body gives warning signals that something is wrong. These physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioral warning signs should not be ignored. They tell you that you need to slow down. If you continue to be stressed and you don’t give your body a break, you are likely to develop health problems. You could also worsen an existing illness. (Curtis, 2007)
If stress itself is a risk factor for heart disease, it could be because chronic stress exposes your body to unhealthy, persistently elevated levels of stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol. Studies also link stress to changes in the way blood clots, which increases the risk of heart attack.
1.6 GENETICS AND DIABETES
type one diabetes: it is believed that diabetes is likely to be inherited amist the other possible links and cause. In families it is studied that first degree relatives have a higher risk of developing type one diabetes than unrelated individuals from the general population (approximately 6% vs <1%, respectively) (Dorman and Bunker, 2000). These data suggest that genetic factors are involved with the development of the disease. At present, there is evidence that more than 20 regions of the genome may be involved in genetic susceptibility to type one diabetes. However, none of the candidates identified have a greater influence on type one diabetes risk than that conferred by genes in the HLA region of chromosome 6. This region contains several hundred genes known to be involved in 4 immune response. Those most strongly associated with the disease are the HLA class II genes (i.e., HLA-DR, DQ, and DP). IDDM1. The HLA class II genes, also referred to as IDDM1, contribute approximately 40-50% of the heritable risk for T1D (Hirschhorn et al., 2003).
Type two diabetes: It has long been known that Type two diabetes is, in part, inherited. Family studies have revealed that first degree relatives of individuals with Type two diabetes are about 3 times more likely to develop the disease than individuals without a positive family history of the disease (Flores et al., 2003; Hansen 2003; Gloyn 2003). It has also been shown that concordance rates for monozygotic twins, which have ranged from 60-90%, are significantly higher than those for dizygotic twins. Thus, it is clear that Type two diabetes has a strong genetic component. One approach that is used to identify disease susceptibility genes is based on the identification of ca n d i d a t e   g e n e s   ( B a r r o s o   e t   a l . ,   2 0 0 3 ;   S t u m v o l l ,   2 0 0 4 ) .   C a n d i d a t e   g e n e s   a r e   s e l e c t e d   b e c a u s e   t h e y   a r e   t h o u g h t   t o   b e   i n v o l v e d   i n   p a n c r e a t i c   ²  c e l l   f u n c t i o n ,   i n s u l i n   a c t i o n   /   g l u c o s e   m e t a b o l i s m ,   o r   o t h e r   m e t a b o l i c   c o n d i t i o n s   t h a t   i n c r e a s e   T y p e   t w o   d i a b e t e s   r i sks (e.g., energy intake / expenditure, lipid metabolism). To date, more than 50 candidate genes for Type two diabetes have been studied in various populations worldwide.
However, results for essentially all candidate genes have been conflicting. Possible explanations for the divergent findings include small sample sizes, differences in Type two diabetes susceptibility across ethnic groups, variation in environmental exposures, and gene-environmental interactions. Because of current controversy, this review  w i l l   f o c u s   o n l y   o n   a   f e w   o f   t h e   m o s t   p r o m i s i n g   c a n d i d a t e   g e n e s .   T h e s e   i n c l u d e   P P A R ³,   A B C C 8 ,   K C N J 1 1 ,   a n d   C A L P N 1 0 .

S e v e r a l   T y p e   t w o   d i a b e t e s   S u s c e p t i b i l i t y   G e n e s

R R   =   r e l a t i v e   r i s k
U P P A R ³  ( p e r o x i s o m e   p r o l i f e r a t o r s – a c t i v a t e d   r e c e p t o r – ³)   U .   T h i s   g e n e   h a s   b e e n   w i d e l y   s t u d i e d   b e c a u s e   i t   i s   i m p o r t a n t   i n   a d i p o c y t e   a n d   l i p i d   m e t a b o l i s m .   I n   a d d i t i o n ,   i t   i s   a   t a r g e t   f o r   t h e   h y p o g l y c e m i c   d r u g s   k n o w n   a s   t h i a z o l i d i n e d i o n e s .   O n e   f o r m   o f   t h e   P P A R ³  g e n e   ( P r o )   d e c r e a s e s   i n s u l i n   s e n s i t i v i t y   a n d   i n c r e a s e s   T y p e   t w o   d i a b e tes risks by several folds. Perhaps more importantly is that this variant is very common in most populations. Approximately 98% of Europeans carry at least one copy of the Pro allele. Thus, it likely contributes to a considerable proportion (~25%) of Type two diabetes that occurs, particularly among Caucasians.
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young: An uncommon form of T2D (accounting for <5% of all T2D cases) that generally occurs before age 25 years is MODY. MODY is characterized by a slow onset of symptoms, the absence of obesity, no ketosis, and no evidence of beta cell autoimmunity. It is most often managed without the need for exogenous insulin. MODY displays an autosomal dominant pattern inheritance, generally spanning three generations (Stride and Hattersley, 2002).

1.7 GENETICS AND HYPERTENSION
Scientists at the University of Virginia and Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., have discovered three variants in a kidney gene that indicate the most common type of hypertension. Their findings, the result of “18-year” collaboration between the two schools, are allowing development of the first predictive medical test for high blood pressure, according to an article in the March 19 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
The researchers report that these gene variations, either by themselves or through interaction with variations of other genes, are associated with essential hypertension in several populations: Caucasian American, Ghanaian and Japanese. The presence of these gene variants, also called polymorphisms, can be determined by a simple genetic test used to assess an individual’s risk of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). The test is based on detection of inherited gene variations that encode for a protein called G protein coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4). GRK4 variations are associated with an inability to eliminate sodium from the body. This discovery has led to a high quality test that should be suitable for screening a large number of patients based on a fluorescent molecular beacon assay, and will aid physicians in their diagnosis of genetic forms of hypertension, (Robin, 2002).
The genetic information disclosed by the new test will allow physicians to provide guidance to patients with a family history of hypertension who wish to know if they should modify their lifestyles to help prevent the debilitating consequences such as kidney failure, heart failure, stroke, blindness or high blood pressure, (Felder, 2002).
Essential hypertension – a type that classifies 50 percent of hypertension – affects 25 percent of the world’s adult population and is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction and heart and kidney failure. Although scientists have believed this condition to be hereditary, determining the genetic cause of essential hypertension was previously difficult because blood pressure level results from a combination of hereditary and environmental factors.
Patients with even a single GRK4 variation have a significant lifetime risk for developing hypertension, said Dr. Pedro A. Jose, professor of pediatrics and of physiology and biophysics at Georgetown University, and senior author of the journal article. We have now identified the genetic abnormalities that cause this error and so we have a better idea of the impact of these gene variations in the development of hypertension in three distinct racial groups.
Identification of this leading cause of hypertension should lead to improved medical treatments for the disease but, the belief of these scientists is it really true?

1.8 PRINCIPLES OF ANTIOXIDANT IN DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION

Very simply put, an antioxidant is something that prevents or slows down oxidization. This can be very beneficial to the health, for instance the cholesterol in our bodies is not necessarily harmful until it becomes oxidized, which then causes it to start clinging to our blood vessels which as you know can then lead to some serious health related heart problems. Antioxidants can help to prevent this and thus make a very positive contribution to your overall general state of health and physical well being (Gorman, 2003)
Have you had your lycopene today? If you ate a green salad with fresh chopped tomatoes, then you not only got a healthy dose of this powerful antioxidant, but you have also taken significant action toward lowering your blood pressure.
A recent double-blind study conducted in Israel has confirmed what hearth-healthy Italians have enjoyed for centuries – tomatoes (and tomato sauce) lower blood pressure and the risk of heart disease (Paran, 2007). Tomatoes are so effective at lowering blood pressure because they contain lycopene. This potent antioxidant is even the focus of some hybrid tomatoes processed by Tomatoes Company in Nigeria (Gino tomatoes).
Long-Term Antioxidant Intervention Improves Myocardial Microvascular Function in Experimental Hypertension (Martin, 2003). Hypertension increases oxidative stress, which can impair myocardial microvascular function and integrity. However, it is yet unclear whether long-term antioxidant intervention in early hypertension would preserve myocardial perfusion and vascular permeability responses to challenge. Pigs were studied after 12 weeks of renovascular hypertension without (n=8) or with daily supplementation of antioxidants (100 IU/kg vitamin E and 1 g vitamin C, n=6), and compared with normal controls (n=7). Myocardial perfusion and microvascular permeability were measured in vivo by electron beam computed tomography before and after 2 cardiac challenges (intravenous adenosine and dobutamine). Basal left ventricular muscle mass was also obtained. Mean arterial pressure was significantly increased in both groups of hypertensive animals (without and with antioxidants, 123±9 and 126±4 mm Hg, respectively, versus normal, 101±4 mm Hg; both P<0.05), but muscle mass was not different among the groups. The impaired myocardial perfusion response to adenosine observed in hypertensives (normal, +51±14%; P<0.05 versus baseline; hypertension, +14±15%; P=0.3 versus baseline) was preserved in hypertensive pigs that received antioxidants (+44±15%; P=0.01 compared with baseline). Long-term antioxidant intervention also preserved subendocardial microvascular permeability responses in hypertension. On the other hand, antioxidant intervention had little effect on the hypertension-induced myocardial vascular dysfunction observed in response to dobutamine. This study demonstrates that the impaired myocardial perfusion and permeability responses to increased cardiac demand in early hypertension are significantly improved by long-term antioxidant intervention. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress in myocardial vascular dysfunction in hypertension and suggest a role for antioxidant strategies to preserve the myocardial microvasculature. (Krier et al, 2003).
Most of the food that many people eat, such as fast food and other food sources high in processed carbohydrates sugars and fat, contain very low levels of antioxidants. As well as being low in antioxidants, these items actually increase your cholesterol level; this can lead to some serious health issues that pose serious health risk. (Heath monitor, 2006).

1.9 HYPOTHESES
H0: Stress is not linked with hypertension
H1: Stress is linked with hypertension
H0: Stress is not linked with diabetes
H1: Stress is linked with diabetes
H0: Antioxidant cannot curb hypertension
H1: Antioxidant can curb hypertension
H0: Antioxidant cannot curb diabetes
H1: Antioxidant can curb diabetes
H0: Hypertension is not hereditary
H1: Hypertension is hereditary
H0: Diabetes is not hereditary
H1: Diabetes is hereditary

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 MATERIALS

The major materials used were: a comprehensive questionnaire and data analysis software. These two materials are very effective in processing information for statistical analysis. Biological raw data can be mathematically analyzed, computed and intensely verified for effective result. Different people have different believes and tenets, but, such believes have to be reasonable hypothesis and proven.

2.1 REVIEW OF HYPOTHESIS
H0: Stress is not linked with hypertension
H1: Stress is linked with hypertension
H0: Stress is not linked with diabetes
H1: Stress is linked with diabetes
H0: Antioxidant cannot curb hypertension
H1: Antioxidant can curb hypertension
H0: Antioxidant cannot curb diabetes
H1: A    ntioxidant can curb diabetes
H0: Hypertension is not hereditary
H1: Hypertension is hereditary
H0: Diabetes is not hereditary
H1: Diabetes is hereditary

2.2 DATA COLLECTION (QUESTIONNAIRE)
Data are research facts that are based on respondents’ answers to questions. There are types of data like parametric and non parametric data; the former is in numerical values while the later is the type I am applying in this research which is nominal or ordinal like sex, age, nationality and more (Oludotun, 2007). Information are processed data while a questionnaire is a form of mechanism for obtaining information, data to be processed and opinions of people about certain issues. Questionnaires have a number of advantages and disadvantages when compared with other evaluation tools. The key strengths and weaknesses of questionnaires are summarized in bullet points below. In general, questionnaires are effective mechanisms for efficient collection of certain kinds of information. They are not, however, a comprehensive means of evaluation and should be used to support and supplement other procedures for evaluating and improving research hence an evaluating soft ware is also utilized in this research as indicated above.
2.3 ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRES:
They permit respondents time to consider their responses carefully without interference from, for example, an interviewer.
Cost: It is possible to provide questionnaires to large numbers of people simultaneously.
Uniformity: Each respondent receives the identical set of questions. With closed-form questions, responses are standardized, which can assist in interpreting from large numbers of respondents.
Can address a large number of issues and questions of concern in a relatively efficient way, with the possibility of a high response rate.
Often, questionnaires are designed so that answers to questions are scored and scores summed to obtain an overall measure of the attitudes and opinions of the respondent.
They may be mailed to respondents although this approach may lower the response rate.
They permit anonymity. It is usually argued that anonymity increases the rate of response and may increase the likelihood that responses reflect genuinely held opinions.
The responses are gathered in a standardized way, so questionnaires are more objective, certainly more so than interviews.
Generally it is relatively quick to collect questions using a questionnaire.
Potential information can be collected from a large portion of a group. This potential is not often realized, as returns from questionnaires are usually low. However return rates can be dramatically improved if the questionnaire is delivered and responded to in time.

2.4 DISADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRES
Questionnaires, like many evaluation methods occur after the event, so participants may forget important issues.
Questionnaires are standardized so it is not possible to explain any points in the questions that participants might misinterpret. This could be partially solved by piloting the questions on a small group of people or at least friends and colleagues. It is advisable to do this anyway.
Open-ended questions can generate large amounts of data that can take a long time to process and analyze. One way of limiting this would be to limit the space available to students so their responses are concise or to sample the people and survey only a portion of them.
Respondents may answer superficially especially if the questionnaire takes a long time to complete.
People may not be willing to answer the questions. They might not wish to reveal the information or they might think that they will not benefit from responding perhaps even be open by giving their real opinion. People should be told why the information is being collected and how the results will be beneficial. They should be asked to reply honestly and told that if their response is negative this is just as useful as a more positive opinion.

2.5 LOCATION IN VIEW
The locations considered: Ikeja, Gbagada, Victoria Island. These areas are both industrial and residential areas. Majority of people in these areas have different life styles and different ways of attending to health issues.

2.6 CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE IN VIEW
People, who take taxies to work, some take private cars, public buses and even bikes. Many of them spend long time in traffic, and even spend long time at work.   
2.7 METHOD OF DATA PROCESSING

There are so many methods applied in investigation of statistical analysis among these are design and survey which are the two methods used. The software used in the analysis of the data collected from the questionnaire is the statistics package for social scientist (SPSS). Based on the fact that the data collected through the questionnaire are non-parametric, they are first analyzed into percentile, mean, mode and median. Furthermore a correlation is made between related information coined from the data in the questionnaire and chi square test into symmetric measure which shows Pearson’s ranking and spearman correlation to produce an efficient result to test if the null hypothesis is accepted or the alternative hypothesis is accepted.  
CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESULT

The questionnaires were collected and analyzed using statistical package for social scientist (SPSS), these were tabulated as percentile, mean and modal information that was further correlated with cross-tabulation, chi square test and symmetric measure. The result shows that stress increases diabetes and hypertension. Antioxidants reduce the effect of diabetes and diabetes and hypertension are both hereditary.

3.1 SECTION A: BIO-DATA
The three locations (Gbagada, Victoria Island and Ikeja) were fused together in a tabular form depicting information in quantity (mode) and in percentage. The tables below are results from the fusion of data from Gbagada, Victoria Island and Ikeja based on some related question on the questionnaire.

Table 1: Age of Respondent

Table 1 shows 56.3% of workers fell in the lower category of age while 43.8% fell in the higher category of age; 18-25 and 26-33 respectively.

Table 2: Marital Status

In table 2, a large number of the respondents are single (94.9%) while the rest were either married or divorced.

Table 3: Nature of Job

Table 3 shows the kind of jobs the respondents do, there were more people on the white collar jobs.   

Table 4: Family History of Hypertension

Table 4 shows that many hypertensive people had traces of family members that were hypertensive.

Table 5: Family History of Diabetes

Table 5, 12% were found to be valid for diabetic traces in their families.

Table 6: Distance to Workplace shows 30.4 valid percent of people living very far from their workplaces.

Table 7: Conditions of the Roads

Table 7 verifies that 51.7% go to work on bad roads.

Table 8: Duration of time spent in Traffic Daily

Table 8, indicates that a higher percent of workers spend about 2hours in traffic.

Table 9: Transportation system to Workplace

Table 9 shows that 43.8 go to work on bike, 36.9 go to work in private cars, 1.1 use commercial buses.

3.3 Section C: Use of Fruits and Vegetables

Table 10: Respondents cook and eat vegetables outside those incorporated into food

In table 10, 62.5% against 29.5% respondents eat vegetables outside those incorporated into food.
Table 11: Respondents eat fruits often

Table 11 depicts that a high frequency of respondents eat fruits.
Correlation/cross-tabulation of parameters closely investigated hypothesis. Samples from the cross relationship showed 13 respondent who were hypertensive out of 35, they spend about 2hours in traffic while 10 out of 34 respondent who were hypertensive spend lesser time in traffic; that is to say stress aggravates diabetes.
For diabetes majority of people who spend more time at work did not respond well to treatment. The chi-square test gave 0.508 which is greater than 0.05 this accepts the alternative hypothesis. Results show that antioxidants curb both diabetes and hypertension, 54 respondents, 17 are hypertensive and eat enough vegetable, but 37 people of the 54 respondents are not hypertensive but eat enough vegetables. More respondent have family members that are both hypertensive and diabetic.

Table 12: Effect of stress on hypertensive patience

CASESCORRELATED QUESTIONSVALIDMISSINGTOTALNPERCENTNPERCENTNPERCENTTRAFFICADURATION OF TIME SPENT IN TRAFFIC DAILY* ARE YOU HYPERTENSIVE?6939.2%10760.8%176100%BDURATION OF TIME SPENT IN TRAFFIC DAILY* WHEN LAST DID YOU CHECK YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE?6335.8%11364.2%176100%CDURATION OF TIME SPENT IN TRAFFIC DAILY* KIND OF MEDICATION(S) USED?5631.8%12068.2%176100%DDURATION OF TIME SPENT IN TRAFFIC DAILY* ANY IMPROVEMENT?3821.6%13878.4%176100%WORKEDAILY TIME AT WORK* HYPERTENSIVE?6838.6%10861.4%176100%FDAILY TIME AT WORK* CHECK OF BLOOD PRESSURE?6436.4%11263.6%176100%GDAILY TIME AT WORK* KIND OF MEDICATION USED5631.8%12068.2%176100%HDAILY TIME AT WORK* ANY IMPROVEMENT?3821.6%13878.4%176100%

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 DISCUSSION

The level of stress back in the days of our fathers compared to the present life style was relatively small.
Physical and mental stress increase the blood sugar level which in turn increases the pressure the blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels. When the rate or speed of blood pumping from the heart around the body increases consistently then you are susceptible to high blood pressure (Olayinka, 2003). The primary hypertension is more common; about nine in ten people suffer from that primary hypertension. There is virtually no clear cause of that one.
The secondary hypertension is more critical with one person in twenty people suffering from it; its cause could be linked to other underlying diseases (www.bhf.org.uk). We have been able to show that People who spent 10hours at work could trigger or aggravate the incidence of high blood pressure. Unsatisfactory job conditions and long time in traffic also triggered the incidence of hypertension. We could show that about 2% of hypertensive people spent less than and equal to 30 minutes in traffic while about 3% of hypertensive people spent about 2hours in traffic. These facts prove that stress leads to high blood pressure.
A large percentage of people with essential hypertension have genetic abnormalities of their peripheral arteries (arterioles) — the small arteries that supply blood to the body’s tissues. This genetic abnormality makes the walls of the arteries stiff so there is greater resistance to the blood flowing through them. (www.medicinenet.com).
A higher number of those with high blood pressure had members of their family with high blood pressure (13 out of 21 respondents that are hypertensive have family members that are hypertensive from the result). Genetic factors may contribute to an estimated thirty percent of cases of essential hypertension (high blood pressure of unknown cause). In the United States, high blood pressure occurs more frequently among African Americans than among white or Asian Americans. Adult African American men are most at risk for developing hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The reason remains unknown, especially since non-American adult African men have very low occurrences of hypertension.  One of the relating factors to high blood pressure is sodium salt; this was sited previously. Some scientist believe that the black American adult suffering from high blood pressure can be linked to the time of the slave trade, when they were crossing the see they must have been affected by the high sea concentration of salt. This is just an assumption. (www.webmd.com).
Diabetes is mainly in two forms except for other minor but important types like MODY: maturity onset diabetes in youth and more (Dorman, 2004). The insulin dependent diabetes which is also called the type one diabetes is when all the cells responsible for the production of insulin has been totally destroyed by the body’s own immune system; the non-insulin dependent diabetes also called type two diabetes this is when the receptors responsible for the stimulation of the cells that produces insulin fails this is also called insulin resistance. In response to this excess insulin produced, over time the cell loses the ability to produce enough insulin to control the blood sugar. Cortisol and epinephrine are triggered to produce excess sugar for energy when a person encounters stress (health monitor, 2006). When there is not enough insulin to control the sugar level, diabetes is worsened (McElroy, 2007). It was clearly discovered that those undergoing certain stressful life style were diabetic with poor response to treatment which is another major connection between stress and diabetes (1.1% of those who spent hours in traffic do not respond to diabetic treatment against 0.44% of those who spent lesser time in traffic). Stress makes diabetes worse; even if you are doing everything you can to control your condition (Tennen, 2007).
At present, there is evidence that more than 20 regions of the genome may be involved in genetic susceptibility to type 1diabetes. The genes strongly associated with the disease are the HLA class II genes (i.e., HLA-DR, DQ, and DP). IDDM1. The HLA class II genes, also referred to as IDDM1, contribute approximately 40-50% of the heritable risk for T1D (Hirschhorn et al., 2003).
It was discovered that those that diagnosed their diabetes between the ages 0-20 had more family members with diabetes. It has long been known that “Type two diabetes” is, in part, inherited. Family studies have revealed that first degree relatives of individuals with “Type two diabetes” are about 3 times more likely to develop the disease than individuals without a positive family history of the disease (Flores et al., 2003; Hansen 2003; Gloyn 2003).
Antioxidants reduce hypertension as the rate of vegetable consumption increases. Out of 54 people 37 who consume a very high amount of vegetables reported not to be hypertensive anymore against the remaining 17 people. This simple indication shows that these vegetables help the body in the reduction of hypertensive risk.
Studies on oxidative stress, antioxidant treatment, and diabetic complications have shown that oxidative stress is increased and may accelerate the development of complications through the metabolism of excessive glucose and free fatty acids in diabetic and insulin-resistant states. However, the contribution of oxidative stress to diabetic complications may be tissue-specific, especially for micro-vascular disease that occurs only in diabetic patients but not in individuals with insulin resistance without diabetes, even though both groups suffer from oxidative stress. Although antioxidant treatments can show benefits in animal models of diabetes, negative evidence from large clinical trials suggests that new and more powerful antioxidants need to be studied to demonstrate whether antioxidants can be effective in treating complications. Furthermore, it appears that oxidative stress is only one factor contributing to diabetic complications; thus, antioxidant treatment would most likely be more effective if it were coupled with other treatments for diabetic complications (www.joslin.harvard.edu).
Those workers that indulge in adding extra vegetables to their meal and eating fruits regularly responded to diabetic treatment properly. This only indicates that since vegetables and fruits are good sources of antioxidant, it has positive effect on diabetic patients. Hence the alternative hypothesis is accepted that antioxidants help in curbing diabetes.

Conclusions
Finally we can confidently say that, “stress is related to hypertension, stress is related to diabetes, antioxidant can ameliorate the risk of developing hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension and diabetes are both hereditary these indications are possible because, haven tested the strength and direction of variables and observed the effect of one variable on the other; the alternative hypotheses were now accepted.

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Alberti, K.G.M.M., Zimmett, P., Surwit, R. Definition, diagnosis and classification of  diabetes mellitus and its complications part 1: diagnosis and classification of  diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med, (1998). 15: 539-553.

Anjos, S., Polychronakos, C. Mechanisms of genetic susceptibility to type 1:diabetes  beyond HLA. Mol Genet Metab, (2004). 81: 187-195.

Barroso, I., Luan, J., Middelberg, R.P.S.,  Candidate gene association study in type 2  Diabetes indicates a role for genes involved in B-Cell function as well as insulin action. PLoS Biol, (2003). 1: 41-55.
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Curtis, E. M. Hypertension effect on cardiovascular diseases: Ame Issues on Health    (2007). 71: 340-350
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Dahlquist, G., Frisk, G., Ivarsson, S.A. Indications that maternal coxsackie B Virus infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for childhood-onset IDDM. Diabetologia, (1995). 38: 1371-1373.
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The art of creativity is his basic line of work, and course of natural selection is the paramount objective of his living, He love music, mtv, channelo, Nigeria, beautiful ladies He calls the soldierlettes, He loves swimming, He loves climbing great height, He loves quest for new things, He loves games. He says… “Tupac preached the thuglife, 50cent talked about the gangster life and Vaughn is preaching the SOLDIER life”, hence the name: Vaughn D Black General. He has done so many reality shows like the African gladiators in 2000, He also did the Gulder ultimate search in 2005, these shows made Him so popular across Africa, hated and loved by many. He has done so many home videos (movies), beautifully, He has presented so many big tv shows on National tv and all. At the moment He’s doing freestyle around universities and streets at the moment in Nigeria. Av Army Entertainment is his priceless dream and tomorrow you will wake up to know the biggest Entrepreneur in the world’s greatest history. By education He is a Geneticist from the University of Lagos always on top of his class…Too many things to talk about well subsequently he shall upgrade this… Vaughn: I would love to work with any firm, corporation, organization Nationally or internationally that would love to do business on a high class. last words, “take it or leave it Vaughn is a general”(smiles) till i meet you tomorrow peace!

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Role Of Events In Our Daily Life

Role Of Events In Our Daily Life

In the present time when life is running at very fast pace, no one have extra time to spend in any extra activity. In spite of all that the human beings requires special type of entertainment, which can give them enough pleasure throughout their life. That’s why different events are held, so that the people of every age group and interest can fully enjoy from these events.

In addition, different people have different interests, like some people love to go to theatre for watching play of their favorite writer, while some go for the music concerts, where they enjoy the hot favorite music from the legend singers. Well, there is another category, which is even liked by every age group and almost more than millions of people like to attend, which are sports matches.

For this they need to buy the sports tickets of their favorite matches, by which they can easily enjoy the live sports match of their own type. If we talk about the sports events, then their comes the wide range of sports, like US open Tennis Championship, Buying Dallas Cowboys, WWE and many other games.

However, one sport is famous among all and that is football, which is one of the national events for most of the European countries and they celebrate with big craze. That’s why sports tickets sell at their most, like, New York Giant team, New England Patriots, Notre Dame Patriots, Pittsburgh Steelers and Tampa Bay Buccaneers are well known and are equally liked by every age group of people.

Well, if we talk about other events, like theater events, then many people feel relax after watching these shows. Some of them like to watch serious plays like helmet shows, Shakespeare, snowman, nutcracker, snowwomen and some ballet shows. Well, some people love to enjoy funny type of theatre shows, like wicked shows, Miss Rolle Rae and many others depending on the interest and likings of different people.

There are many sources of getting the theatre tickets, but internet is best among all, because here you can find all type of information relating to your desired venues and the dates of these events. Online search for the upcoming events always helps you in staying update and tells you whenever there comes any special event.

Last but not the least is most important music events, which are mostly liked by the young generations. Young people love to enjoy the energetic shows and they entertained by the concerts held for different singers and musician. All these people get amazed by the performance of their favorite singers. Most popular concert tickets are sale for pop, pop and opera, classic and opera, country and folk, jazz, blues and soul.

All these events are purely organized in order to give full entertainment to all its viewers. However, it depends on the viewers that what type of event they choose for their own fun and enjoyment. In the present time, there are so many events that it would not be difficult for anyone to spend better time by enjoying any of these events.

Get discounted sports tickets, theater tickets and events tickets of your favorite start at discounted price from http://www.bigstub.com/. Your only source for the latest events tickets. Don’t miss it.

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Spågumma3: www.youtube.com woo 21k views thats crazy! thanks guys This is my 2nd pvp movie with my warlock. i tried to focus less on 1vs1 in this video, as demanded. 0/17/54 SFlame glyph, immo glyph and conflag glyph addons:bartender, Ecastingbar and RWmod. Tarren mill (EU) I rendered this one in HD which gives alot better quality. The downside of this is that my computer is not that fast and couldn’t really handle more fancy effects after i did this so do not expect any awesome editing. Hopefully you guys can enjoy the pvp anyway ^^ Intro song: Eminem – Hello (mix) Songs: Frontline by Pillar(Not original state |mix) & Time of dying by Three days grace(Not original state |mix). Amory link: eu.wowarmory.com (Have gotten som new gear since i started making this movie)
Video Rating: 4 / 5

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